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考研英语知识点汇总,今天咱们吃“语法”乱炖!

  摘要:从小学到大的英语,还是不懂语法。翻来覆去,英语语法只有那么多,会者不难,难者不会。帮帮为英语薄弱的小伙伴们汇总了考研英语语法知识点,希望2019的考研er能够有所裨益!

  ►as...as...引导的比较级:

  (1)"as +形容词或副词原级+as+被比较对象"结构。例句: He studies as hard as you. 他像你一样学习努力。

  (2)在否定句或疑问句中可用 not so…as…. 例句:He can notrun so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。

  ►only引导的倒装句型:

  only +状语 (或状语从句)位于句首时,句子部分倒装。

  例句: Only by diligence and honesty can one succeed inlife. 只有勤奋、正直,一个人在生活中才能成功。

  注意:但 only修饰主语时,不倒装。例句: Onlythat girl knew how to work out the problem. 只有那位女生知道怎样解那道题。

  ►wish引导的虚拟语气:

  wish 后面的从句,当表示与事实相反的情况,或表示将来不太可能实现的愿望时,其宾语从句的动词形式为:

  ⑴表示对现在情况的虚拟:从句动词用过去式或过去进行式表示,be 的过去式用were.

  I wish I knew the answer to the question. 我希望知道这个问题的答案。(可惜不知道。)

  ⑵表示对过去情况的虚拟:从句动词用had +过去分词。

  I wish (that) I hadn't wastedso much time. 我后悔不该浪费这么多时间。( 实际上已经浪费掉了。)

  ⑶表示对将来的主观愿望:谓语动词形式为"would/ should/ could/ might +动词原形"。在这种情况下,主句的主语与从句的主语不能相同,因为主句的主语所期望的从句动作能否实现,取决于从句主语的态度或意愿(非动作名词除外) 。

  I wish it would stop raining. 但愿雨能停止。

  注意:若wish 后的宾语从句中用 would,可以表示请求,通常意味着说话人的不快或不满。

  例句:I wish you would be quiet. 我希望你安静一些。

  ►it形式宾语:

  和it 作形式主语一样, 我们常用it 来作形式宾语, 把真正的宾语从句放在句末, 这种情况尤其出现在带复合宾语的句子中。

  例句:He has made it clear that he will not give in. 他表明他不会屈服。

  ►The+比较级,the+比较级表示"越......越......"

  例句:The more scared we are, the stronger the difficultywill become.我们越害怕困难,困难就会变得越强大。

  ► 宾语从句:一般疑问句做宾语,引入if或whether

  例句: I want to know if he will join us in thediscussion?

  ► 原因状语从句:since引导的

  例句: Don't eat too much sugarsince it is bad for your health.

  ►否定词前置倒装:scarcely...when...

  例句: Scarcely had he arrived at home when it began torain.

  ► If虚拟条件句

  ⑴表示与现在事实相反的情况:从句:If+主语+过去时(Be动词用were),主句:主语+ should/would/might/could+do:

  例如:If I were you, I would not accept his offer。

  ⑵表示与过去情况相反:

  从句:If+主语+had+done,主句:主语+should/would/might/could+have done

  例如:If I had been more careful, I might have passed that exam。

  ⑶表示与将来情况相反:主句谓语用"would / could / might +动词原形",从句谓语用"were +动词不定式"或"should +动词原形"。

  例如:If I were to do the job, I would not be able to have enough time to study。

  ►宾语从句:放在介词后面,作介词的宾语。

  例句:I know nothing about him except that he used towork in Shanghai.

  ►状语从句省略(分词作状语):从句的主语和状语从句的主语一致,状从省略采用分词作状语。

  例句:

  (Because) being short of money, we can't afford a TV set. =Because we are short of money, we can't afford a TV set.

  ►并列句:由and,or , but连接的两个句子成为并列句。

  ►省略句 /倒装:so/系动词/助动词/情态动词 +sb 表示"前者情况适用于后者"。例句:

  You are a student, so am I.

  ►定语从句 who引导的限定性定从

  例句:Do youremember the girl who taught us English ?你还记得教我们英语的那个女孩吗?

  ►宾语从句:whether的用法。

  例句:I wonder if/whether it is going to rain tomorrow.

  ►不定式做定语

  例句:Theonly way to solve our problems will continue to be rejected.

  ►原因状从:now that的用法。

  now that 表示 "既然"。与 since 的不同之处在于,now that 引出的必须是一个新出现的事实或情况,如果依然如故,和过去相比并没有变化,则不用 now that 引导。

  例句:Now that we have all the materials ready, we shouldbegin the new task at once.既然我们把所有材料都准备好了,我们应该立刻开始这项新的工作。

  ► 原因状从:for的用法。

  由because 引导的从句如果放在句末,且前面有逗号,则可以用并列连词 for 来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况加以推断,就只能用 for。例句:He is absent today, because/for he is ill. 他今天没来,因为他生病了。

  ► 原因状从:as 的用法。

  例句:The Singapore passengers begin to decrease as otherairlines spread their operating range.

  ► 同位语从句:Iwant to know the answer to this question who will be our next president.

  原因状从: in that的用法。例句:

  Privatization is thought to be beneficial in that itpromotes competition. 私营化的优点在于能促进相互竞争。

  ► 不定式:不定式做目的状语。

  例句:Weget up very early to catch the first bus.

  ►同位语从句:同位语从句在句中作A同位语,对被修饰名词的内容予以解释说明。

  同位语的特点是:抽象名词在前,表达具体内容的从句在后。常见的名词包括: assumption假定/belief看法/ conclusion结论/ doubt怀疑等。

  例句:The suggestion that we should develop the natural resources in theregion has been discussed. 关于我们应该开发本地区资源的建议已经讨论过了。

  ►现在完成时:表示过去延续到现在的动作或状态。

  具体来说,这种用法是表示开始于过去的动作一直持续到现在,而且还可能继续持续下去。谓语动词一般为延续性动词。

  例句:An old woman walked out into the middle of the street. The policemanyelled to her, "Don't you knowwhat it means when I hold up my hand?" The lady said, "Sure I do. I have been a schoolteacher for 28 years now." 一个老妇人走到了马路中央,这时,一位交警朝着她嚷道:"我都把手举起来了,你难道还不知道什么意思吗?"老太太说:"我当然知道,我都做了28 年的老师了。"

  ► 时间状从:not…until… 用法。

  例句:The students didn't stop talking until the teacher came in.

  ►it做形式主语,句子做逻辑主语:如果主语太长,常用代词 it 作形式主语,将真正的主语从句置于句尾,以保持句式的平衡。

  例句:It makes no difference what you read or study ifyou can't remember it. 如果你记不住,那么你读什么或者学什么都不重要了。

  ► 现在分词短语作状语:

  (1)现在分词作时间状语。例句:There areseveral things to consider when buying fresh foods. 当购买新鲜食品时,有几个事情要考虑。

  (2)现在分词作条件状语。例句:Working hard,you will succeed. 如果努力工作,你将会成功。

  (3)现在分词作伴随状语。例句:All night longhe lay awake, thinking of the problem. 他整夜躺在床上睡不着,思考着那个问题。

  (4)现在分词作方式状语。例句:Please answerthe question using another way. 请用另一种方法回答问题。

  (5)现在分词作原因状语。例句:Not knowingher address, I can't write to her.由于不知道她的地址,我没法给她写信。

  (6)现在分词作结果状语。

  例句:Possessing a car gives a much greater degree ofmobility, enabling the driver to move around freely. 拥有汽车使机动程度更高,使司机能自由自在地往来各地。

  (7)现在分词作让步状语。

  例句:Although working from morning till night his fatherdidn't get enough food.虽然他父亲从早到晚拼命干,但是还是挣不够吃的。

  ► 情态动词表推测

  (1)对现在、将来情况的推测,用情态动词+动词原形

  对现在、将来情况的肯定推测:must+动词原形

  对现在、将来情况的否定推测:can't +动词原形

  对现在、将来情况的可能推测:may/might +动词原形

  例句:What is he doing?

  He must be sleeping./He can'tbe reading./ He may/might be reading but I'm not sure.

  (2)对过去情况的推测,用情态动词+have donesth.

  对过去情况的肯定推测:must+have done sth.

  对过去情况的否定推测:can't +have donesth.

  对过去情况的可能推测:may/might +have done sth.

  例句:It must / may / might / have rained last night. Theground is wet.

  The door is locked. He cannot / may ( might ) not havebeen at home.

  ► 部分倒装:否定词前置

  (1)hardly/scarcely…when…

  例句:Hardly had she gone out when a student came tovisit her.

  她刚一出门,一个学生就来拜访她。

  (2)no sooner…than…

  例句:No sooner had the game begun than it began to rainheavily.

  比赛刚一开始就下起了雨。

  ► 动词 ing 形式作独立主格结构:逻辑主语和主句主语不一致时采用。

  例句:Time permitting, we will go for a picnic tomorrow.(=f time permits, we will go for a

  picnic tomorrow.) 如果时间允许,我们明天会去野餐。

  ►so...as to 结构:表示"如此......以至于......"。

  例句:The girl was so excited as to shout herself hoarse.那个女孩兴奋得喊哑了嗓子。

  ► even if 引导的让步状语从句:"即使"

  例句: Even if we achieve great success in our work, weshould not be proud.

  即使我们在工作中取得了巨大成绩,也不应该自满。

  ► when 引导的状语从句

  (1)when可以和延续性动词连用,也可以和短暂性动词连用。

  例句:Why do you want a new job when you've got such a good one already?(get为短暂性动词)你已经找到如此好的工作,为何还想再找新的?

  when从句的谓语动词可以在主句谓语动作之前、之后或同时发生。

  例句:When he had finished his homework,he took a short rest.(finished先发生)当他完成作业后,他休息了一会儿。

  When I got to the airport,theguests had left.(got to后发生)当我赶到飞机场时,客人们已经离开了。

  ►that 引导的宾语从句

  名词从句作动词宾语时,前面的that常被省略,特别是在非正式语体中。

  例句:I suggested (that) they should drive along thecoast. 我建议他们沿着海岸开车。

  I hoped (that) I would / should succeed. 我曾希望我会成功。

  ► which 引导的主语从句

  例句:Which book they will choose is still unknown. 他们将选择哪本书仍然不被人知。

  ►过去完成时和过去将来时

  (1)过去完成时(past perfect tense):强调的是过去某一动作或状态发生在另一动作前或过去某个时间常常用到的时态,或指在过去某个时间段已经发生的事情,它就是过去的过去。   ①表示发生在过去的动作对现在造成的某种影响或结果,用来指定在另一个过去行动之前就已经完成了的一个事件。②过去某动作一直持续到现在将来可能还要延续下去。句中的动作发生在过去之前(过去的过去),即过去完成时动作发生在过去的过去。例句: He said he had been to Beijing twice. 他说他已经去过北京两次。

  (2)过去将来时表示在过去某个时间看来将要发生的动作或存在的状态。即:过去将来时是"立足过去,着眼未来"的一种时态, 常用于宾语从句中。判断这种时态的依据是:要有表示过去的"动作", 而不是时间。例句:I heard that they were going toreturn to Shanghai soon. 我听说他们不久要回到上海。

  ►there be句型:表示的是 "某处有(存在)某人或某物",其结构为There be (is,are,was, were )+名词+地点状语。

  例句:There are fifty-two students in our class. 教室里有52个学生。

  (实习小编:玉琳)

 

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