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英语真题长难句大剖析,助你突破翻译难关

  摘要:在考研英语中,长难句是很常见的,很多考研er都会碰到每个单词都认识,就是不会翻译的情况,今天我们一起给真题中的长难句做一个大剖析,希望帮助你突破翻译难关。

  ►1.This success, coupled with later research showing that memory itself is not genetically determined, led Ericsson to conclude that the act of memorizing is more of a cognitive exercise than an intuitive one.

  词汇突破:cognitive 认知的 (后天习得的)

  Intuitive 先天的

  和以上这组单词概念相同的表达还有:

  Nature先天;nurture后天; born ;先天的;made 后天的;innate天生的;Acquired后天习得;

  Determine 决定

  Coupled with 相当于and,想类似的表达还有along with ; combined with等。

  主干识别:句子的主语是This success和later research ;谓语是led; 宾语是Ericsson; 不定式短语to conclude 做状语;主干结构是:this success and later research led Ericsson to conclude that …

  其他成分:在research后面接一个现在分词短语做后置定语,在这个现在分词短语中that引导的从句做showing 的宾语;在不定式短语中that引导的从句做conclude的宾语;more…than结构翻译为与其说,不如说。

  微观解析:由于主语中的第二个并列成分比较长,且是用两个逗号隔开的,在阅读的时候可以跳读;把This success和动词led先连起来然后再来解析其他成分。

  译文赏析:这种成功和后来表明记忆本身并不是先天决定的研究使爱立信总结道,记忆的行为与其说是一种先天的行为不如说是一种习得的行为。

  ►2.It is not obvious how the capacity to visualize objects and to figure out numerical patterns suits one to answer questions that have eluded some of the best poets and philosophers.

  词汇突破:visualize 想象

  Figure out 发现和找出

  Suits 使…适合

  主干识别:句子主语是由how引导的一个主语从句,it是句子的形式主语;句子主干为: How …is not obvious.

  在主语从句中主语是capacity,谓语是suits 宾语是one ;

  其他成分:状语为to answer…主语后加上两个动词不定式做后置定语; 动词不定式中的宾语questions后面接一个that引导的定语从句。

  难点揭秘:这个句子是一个由形式主语it引导的主语从句,其中难点为需要识别出主语从句中的动词suits.

  译文赏析:构思物体和找出数字模型的能力是如何让一个人去回答那些连最好的诗人和哲学家都回避的问题的,这点我们还不是很清楚。

  ►3.Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.

  【词汇突破】Toil through (辛苦的经历)

  名词:Winston Churchill: "Blood, Toil, Tears and Sweat”(丘吉尔演讲)

  sweat and toil (汗水和辛苦)

  He succeeded after years of toil. (他经历数年的辛劳之后成功了)

  SAT 美国高考 全称为scholastic assessment test 学术性评估测试

  testify 证实

  matter 这里是动词,重要;sth matters 事情很重要;

  【主干识别】anyone 为句子的主语,will testify 为句子谓语,that引导一个宾语从句;

  【其他成分】that 引导的宾语从句中test-taking skill 为主语,matters 做谓语,whether 引导一个状语从句

  【译文赏析】任何一个曾经辛苦的经历过SAT考试的人都会证实考试的技巧也很重要,无论这种技巧是知道什么时候去猜还是知道什么问题应该跳过。

  【造句】Anyone who has achieved the success to any extent will testify that cooperation matters, whether it’s individual’s willingness to cooperate or team work spirit of a group.

  ►4. During the past generation, the American middle-class family that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure has been transformed by economic risk and new realities.

  【词汇突破】count on 依靠;

  fair play 公平竞争

  【主干识别】the American middle-class family has been transformed主干是主谓结构被动态;

  【其他成分】that once could count on hard work and fair play to keep itself financially secure 定语从句修饰middle-class family ;During the past generation和by economic risk and new realities 做状语;

  【微观解析】the American middle-class family 为句子主语,谓语是has been transformed;During the past generation和by economic risk and new realities 为状语;that 引导一个定语从句,that在从句中做主语,谓语为 could count on, 宾语为hard work and fair play;to keep itself financially secure为状语。

  【难点揭秘】主语后接了较长的修饰成份使这个句子在阅读时主干不容易把握。造成理解的困难。

  【译文赏析】在过去的20多年时间里,那些曾经依靠辛勤工作和公平竞争就可以保证自己财政收支安全的美国中产阶级家庭已经被经济风险和新的现实所改变。(定语从句前置的翻译方法来处理这个句子)

  ►5.On another level, many in the medical community acknowledge that the assisted--suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.

  【词汇突破】agony 痛苦

  despair 绝望

  prolong 延长

  【主干识别】many acknowledge that +宾语从句 (many 作为代词表示很多人,或者很多个体)

  【其他成分】On another level 做状语和in the medical community做定语;the assisted--suicide debate has been fueled by the despair of patients为宾语从句主干;

  特别提示:fuel本来意思是燃料,但是这里可以理解为由于,因为,加剧的意思;

  为了以后阅读理解更透彻,可以直接把结构

  A is fueled by B 理解为:

  A是结果;B是原因

  例句:

  China's success is fueled by the age of globlization.

  【微观解析】in part宾语从句中的状语,for whom modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying.定语从句修饰patients; 定语从句还原为一个独立的句子就是:Modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying for them. 这个句子中的them 和前面句子中的patients 为相同名词,因此在这里作者将其写成了一个定语从句,但是在翻译的时候是要分译的。

  这句话在定语从句的前世和今生:

  suicide debate has been fueled in part by the despair of patients.

  The modern medicine has prolonged the physical agony of dying for them.

  (两个句子中出现了共有的名词patients 和 them,于是them 被换成了whom ;for whom 一并提前。)

  【难点揭秘】同样是隔离结构在阅读的过程中给我们带来不舒服的感觉,in part 放到了 fueled 和 by 之间,in the medical community放到了many和acknowledge之间。

  【译文赏析】在另一个层面上,很多医疗界的人士承认,关于医生帮助下的自杀的讨论,部分是因为病人的绝望情绪,对病人来说,现代医学已经延长了死亡的生理的痛苦。

  【写作】On another level,many in the educational establishment acknowledge that the debate on the ranking of universities ?has been fueled in part by the despair of graduates for whom the discrimination brought by the ranking of university has put more obstacles on their job hunting way.

  ►6.The trend was naturally most obvious in those areas of science based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training, and can be illustrated in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom.

  【词汇突破】

  illustrate 例证;

  in terms of 根据,以…为依据;

  【主干识别】The trend was most obvious and can be illustrated. 主系表结构两个并列的动词

  【其他成分】naturally ,in those areas of science , in terms of the development of geology in the United kingdom为状语。

  【微观解析】based especially on a mathematical or laboratory training修饰状语中的名词science做定语。

  【难点揭秘】naturally 和 especially 副词做状语放的位置都不是在开头和结尾,而是放在了中间部分,这样给我们阅读带来一定的困扰,但是难点既亮点,我们在写作的过程中就可以灵活的运用:based especially on这样的表达了。

  【译文赏析】很自然,这种趋势会在尤以数学或实验室训练为基础的自然学科领域中表现的最为明显,并且可以用英国地质学的发展作为例证来说明。

  【翻译点拨】把副词放到开头来翻译,正是体现了前面所讲到的副词很多时候就是在修饰整个句子。

  ►7.The report identifies the under treatment of pain and the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures” that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying as the twin problems of end--of--life care.

  【词汇突破】 under treatment 治疗不足

  aggressive 1.侵略的,侵犯的 2.好斗的,挑衅的 3.有进取精神的;有干劲的 4.大胆的

  dishonor 使丢脸,使受耻辱

  medical procedures 医疗手段

  【主干识别】The report identifies…and…as the twin problems of end--of--life care 主谓宾宾补结构;the under treatment of pain和 the aggressive use of "ineffectual and forced medical procedures” that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying 为并列的宾语成分。

  【微观解析】that may prolong and even dishonor the period of dying为定语从句修饰ineffectual and forced medical procedures,定语从句中有两个并列的动词prolong and dishonor做谓语。

  【难点揭秘】这个句子的困难之处就在于并列宾语的后半部分加上了一个定语从句进而使identify 和as 之间的距离拉大,产生了阅读障碍。

  【译文赏析】报告把对疼痛处理不够和大胆使用可能延长死亡期甚至让病人死的不体面的无效的和强制的医疗手段确定为临终关怀的两个问题。

  报告确定了临终关怀的两个问题,一是对疼痛处理不够,二是大胆的使用可能延长死亡期甚至让病人死的不体面的那些无效和强制的医疗手段。

  【翻译点拨】这个句子的翻译主要考察对于词的理解: dishonor the period of dying 直接翻译就是:使死亡的阶段受到耻辱。可以转译为:让病人死的不体面。中文是习惯是以人为主体的。还有就是medical procedures 表示医疗手段而不要翻译成医疗过程。

  ►8. The notion that learning should have in it an element of inspired play would seem to the greater part of the academic establishment merely silly, but that is nonetheless the case.

  【词汇突破】

  inspired 有激发性的

  establishment 机构,建立

  nonetheless 但是

  case 事实,实情

  【主干识别】The notion would seem merely silly. 主系表结构

  【其他成分】that learning should have in it an element of inspired play 同位语从句修饰notion;主干为that learning should have an element of inspired play,是主谓结构;in it 为状语。to the greater part of the academic establishment状语。

  【难点揭秘】这个句子的难点就是在主干中加入了状语和同位语从句使句子结构变得复杂。很多同学会对but 和 nonetheless 连用感到困惑。两个句子之间是需要连词连接的,but是连词,起连接两个句子的作用。

  但是两个句子之间的转折关系并不是像but所表达的那样强烈,前后两句之间为“部分肯定”的转折关系,因此使用nonetheless 转折副词,表明转折的意味并不强烈。这里的but也可以换为and。

  【译文赏析】大多数的学术机构认为在学习中加入有启发性玩耍的理念是非常愚蠢的,但是这样的事情确实常常发生的。

  【翻译点拨】把状语翻译为中文中的主谓结构,我们也可以翻译为:“对于大多数的学术机构而言”,但是翻译为中文的主谓结构更简洁,that is the case 如果翻译为这就是事实,没有能表达出准确的句意。就正如迈克尔杰克逊的纪念电影this is it 我们翻译为:就是这样。

  ►9. An invisible border divides those arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students" career prospects and those arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform.

  【词汇突破】argue for 支持

  argue against 反对

  on the behalf of = on behalf of 代表

  career prospects 就业前景

  radical 彻底的,根本的,激进的

  【主干识别】An invisible border divides those and those. 主谓宾结构

  【其他成分】arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students’ career prospects 和arguing for computers in the classroom for broader reasons of radical education reform 现在分词短语分别修饰两个those 作后置定语。

  【微观解析】arguing for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students’ career prospects相当于who argue for computers in the classroom on the behalf of students’ career prospects

  【难点揭秘】divide those …and those…在两个those后面加上了很长的修饰成分造成了结构识别的困难。

  【译文赏析】一条无形的界限将支持计算机进课堂的人分为两类:一类人是从学生的职业前景从发思考的,另一类人想的是像教育的彻底改革这样的一些更广泛的理由。

  【翻译点拨】在翻译的过程中,我们把arguing for computers in the classroom放到了those 前作汉语中的前置定语再把过长的定语部分单独成句,这样更符合中文的表达习惯。

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