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19考研er:英语复习之基础词汇必备篇

  摘要:广大考研er在备考时,英语单词背了忘,忘了背,做题或阅读文章时感觉似曾相识却无法通读文章大意,单词成为英语学习中的老大难。今天帮帮为大家整理了考研英语中的基础必考词汇,希望对大家有所帮助~

  ►state

  n. 状态;情况;州;国家

  v. 陈述;说明;规定

  【真题例句】

  1)The current state of affairs may have been encouraged -- though not justified -- by the lack of legal penalty (in America, but not Europe) for data leakage. (2007-text 4)

  译文:由于(在美国,而不是欧洲)缺乏对数据泄露的法律制裁,因此可能会助长这一事态的形成,尽管这一点还未得到证实。

  2)As a condition of receiving state approval for the sale, the company agreed to seek permission from state regulators to operate past 2012. (2012-text 2)

  译文:作为获得州销售许可的条件,该公司同意在2012年后经州监管部门批准后再继续运营。

  ►flaw

  n. 瑕疵;裂纹;缺点

  v. 使破裂;使有缺陷

  【真题例句】

  1)The most glaring flaw of the social cure as it’s presented here is that it doesn’t work very well for very long.(2012-text1)

  译文:正如这里所显示的,社会治疗最明显的缺陷是它不能持久地良好运行。

   impact

  n. 影响;碰撞;撞击

  v. 撞击;碰撞;冲击

  【真题例句】

  1)Though several fast-fashion campanies have made efforts to curb their impact on labor and the environment -- including H&M, with its green Conscious Collection Line -- Cline believes lasting change can only be effected by the customer. (2013-text 1)

  译文:尽管多家快时尚公司已经在尽力控制其对劳动力和环境的影响(例如H&M推出了环保意识系列服装生产线),但克莱因认为,长期的改变只能通过消费者来实现。

   alive

  adj. 活着的;有生气的;活跃的

  【真题例句】

  1)If the trade unionist Jimmy Hoffa were alive today, he would probably represent civil servant.(2012-text 4)

  译文:如果工会主义者吉米·霍法如今仍然在世,他可能会代表公务员。

   federal

  adj. 联邦的

  【真题例句】

  1)In Arizona V. United States, the majority overturned three of the four contested provisions of Arizona’s controversial plan to have state and local police enforce federal immigration law.(2013-text 4)

  译文:在亚利桑那州和美国政府的对决中,亚利桑那州提出了一项充满争议的方案,即让州警察和地方警察执行联邦移民法。方案里有四项有争议的条款,其中三项被多数票否决。

  ► mark

  n. 痕迹;记号;符号;分数

  v. 做标记;指出;标明

  【真题例句】

  1)America’s new plan to buy up toxic assets will not work unless banks mark assets to levels which buyers find attractive.(2010-text4)

  译文:美国收购不良资产的新计划不会起作用,除非银行将资产售价定到足够吸引买家的水平上。

  ► stress

  n. 压力;强调;重点;着重

  v. 强调;着重

  【真题例句】

  1)They should know how to deal with setbacks, stresses and feelings of inadequacy. (2007新题型)

  译文:他们(孩子)应该知道如何应对挫折、压力和无法胜任的感觉。

  2)Because representative government presupposes an informed citizenry, the report supports full literacy; stresses the study of history and government, particularly American history and American government; and encourages the use of new digital technologies. (2014-text4)

  译文:由于代表制政府是以公民有知识为前提,该报告支持全民读书写字;强调对历史和政体的研究(尤其是美国历史和美国政体);鼓励应用新兴数字技术。

  ► court

  n. 法院;法庭

  【真题例句】

  1)On a five to three vote, the Supreme Court knocked out much of Arizona’s immigration law Monday -- a modest policy victory for the Obama Administration.(2013-text 4)

  译文:美国联邦最高法院周一以5:3的投票结果否决了亚利桑那州移民法的大部分内容。对奥巴马政府而言,这是它在政策方面取得的一次小胜。

   official

  adj. 官方的;法定的

  n. 官员;行政人员

  【真题例句】

  1)But in her new book Join the Club, Tina Rosenberg contends that peer pressure can also be a positive force through what she calls the social cure, in which organizations and officials use the power of group dynamics to help individuals improve their lives and possibly the world.(2012-text 1)

  译文:但是,在其新书《加入俱乐部》中,蒂娜·罗森博格主张,通过“社会治愈”,“同辈压力”也能成为一种积极的力量。她所谓的“社会治愈”是指机构和官员运用群体力量来帮助个体改善他们的生活,乃至整个世界。

   consider

  v. 认为;把···看做;考虑;体谅;照顾

  【真题例句】

  1)Rather than concluding that children make parents either happy or miserable, Senior suggests we need to redefine happiness: instead of thinking of it as something that can be measured by moment-to-moment joy, we should consider being happy as a past-tense condition.(2011-text4)

  译文:西尼尔没有对孩子到底让父母快乐还是痛苦这一问题下结论,而是建议我们需要重新定义幸福:幸福不能以时时刻刻的快乐来衡量,相反,我们应该把幸福视为一种过去式的状态。

   subject

  n. 主题;题目;科目;学科

  v. 使遭受;使服从;使隶属

  adj. 受···支配的;服从于···的

  【真题例句】

  1)At the very least, the court should make itself subjet to the code of conduct that applies to the rest of the federal judiciary. (2012完型)

  译文:至少,法院应该遵守适用于联邦司法系统其他部门的行为准则。

   consumer

  n. 顾客;消费者

  【真题例句】

  1)These labels encourage style-conscious consumers to see clothes as disposable -- meant to last only a wash or two, although they don’t advertise that -- and to renew their wardrobe every few weeks.(2013-text 1)

  译文:这些品牌鼓励有时尚意识的消费者将衣服看作一次性商品,洗一两水后就不能再穿了(虽然他们并没有宣传),还鼓励他们每过几周就更新他们衣橱。

   essay

  n. 论文;杂文;散文

  【真题例句】

  1)Unfortunately, these critics are virtually forgotten. Neville Cardus, who wrote for the Manchester Guardian from 1917 until shortly before his death in 1975, is now known solely as a writer of essays on the game of cricket.(2012-text 1)

  译文:遗憾的是,这些评论家几乎都被遗忘了。内维尔·卡达斯从1917年至1975年去世前不久一直在为《曼彻斯特卫报》写评论,但如今的人们只知道他会写有关板球比赛的文章。

   matter

  v. 要紧;有关系;有影响

  n. 物质;材料

  【真题例句】

  1)Anyone who has toiled through SAT will testify that test-taking skill also matters, whether it’s knowing when to guess or what questions to skip.(2007-text2)

  译文:任何一个为SAT而奋战过的人都可以证实,考试技巧也很重要,比如要知道什么时候靠猜测,哪些问题要跳过。

   function

  n. 功能;作用;职责

  v. 起作用

  【真题例句】

  1)The second half of the 20th century saw a collection of geniuses, warriors, entrepreneurs and visionaries labour to create a fabulous machine that could function as a typewriter and printing press, studio and theatre, paintbrush and gallery, piano and radio, the mail as well as the mail carrier. (2012新题型)

  译文:20世纪后半叶见证了一群天才、勇士、企业家和有远见卓识的人发明出一种绝妙的机器:既有打字机的功能,又有印刷机的功能;既能做演播室,又能做剧院;既能当画笔,也能当展览馆;既能是钢琴,也能是收音机;既可以是邮局,也可以是邮递员。

  ► evidence

  n. 证据;迹象;证据

  【真题例句】

  1)Even though there is plenty of evidence that the quality of the teachers is the most important variable, teachers’ unions have fought against getting rid of bad ones and promoting good ones.(2012--text 4)

  译文:即便有大量证据表明,教师的素质是最重要的变量,但教师工会还是反对开除差的老师,提拔好的老师。

   concern

  n. 关心;关切;顾虑;忧虑

  v. 涉及;关系到;关注

  【真题例句】

  1)Certainly, there are valid concerns about the patchwork regulations that could result if every state sets its own rules.(2012-text 2)

  译文:有人担心如果每个州都设立自己的法规,那么就会缺乏统一的监管。当然,这些担心都是合理的。

   allow

  v. 允许;同意;考虑

  常用词组:allow for 考虑到;顾及

  【真题例句】

  1)In the last decade or so, advances in technology have allowed mass-market labels such as Zara, H&M, and Uniqlo to react to trends more quickly and anticipate demand more precisely.(2013-text1)

  译文:在过去的十年左右,科技的进步使诸如Zara, H&M, 和Uniqlo这些面向大众的品牌能更迅速地对潮流做出反应,并且更加准确地预测市场需求。

   productive

  adj. 富有成效的;多产的;有益的;具有创造性的

  【真题例句】

  1)Only when humanity began to get its good in a moreproductive way was there time for other things. (2009-text3)

  译文:只有人类开始用更富有成效的方式来获取食物时,他们才有时间做其他的事。

  ► professional

  n. 专业人士

  adj. 职业的;专业的;专门的

  【真题例句】

  1)If you then examined the European national youth teams that feed the World Cup and professional ranks, you would find this strange phenomenon to be even more pronounced.(2007--text 1)

  译文:如果那时在关注一下为世界杯和专业球队输送人才的欧洲国家青年队,你会发现这一奇怪现象更加明显。

   Level

  n. 水平;程度;等级;级别

  adj. 水平的;平的;平稳的

  v. 弄平;使对准

  【真题例句】

  1)At the statelevel their influence can be even more fearsome. (2012--text 4)

  译文:在州这一级别,他们的影响力甚至有可能更加可怕。

   deal

  n. 数量;程度;协议;交易

  v. 处理;给予;做买卖;经营

  【真题例句】

  1)A deal is a deal -- except, apparently, when Entergy is involved.(2012-text 2)

  译文:说到就要做到,但安特吉公司似乎是一个例外。

  2)From the middle-class family perspective, much of this, understandably, looks far less like an opportunity to exercise more financial responsibility, and a good deal more like a frightening acceleration of the wholesale shift of financial risk onto their already overburdened shoulders.(2007-text 3)

  译文:可以理解的是,从中产阶级家庭的角度来看,这一切看起来远远不像是履行更多金融责任的机会,在很大程度上反而更像是一种可怕的催化剂:把金融风险全部都转移到其负担已十分沉重的双肩上。

  ►content

  v. 使满足

  n. 容量;含量;内容;满足;满意

  adj. 满足的;满意的

  【真题例句】

  1)Even if a job’s starting salary seems too small to satisfy an emerging adult’s need for rapid content, the transition from school to work can be less of a setback if the start-up adult is ready for the move.(2007-新题型)

  译文:虽然一份工作的起薪似乎太少,难以让一个刚刚成年的人立即满意,但是对于有充分准备的准成年人来说,从学校到工作的过渡不会遇到太多的挫折。

  ►comprehensive

  adj. 全面的;综合性的;能充分理解的;广泛的

  n. (英国的公立性)综合中学

  词组扩展:beyond one’s comprehension 不可理解

  【真题例句】

  1)The study found that, among prosecuted firms, those with the most comprehensive CSR programmes tended to get more lenient penalties. (2016-text3)

  译文:研究发现,在被起诉、检举的公司中,那些具有最为综合的社会责任项目的公司往往会得到更为宽容的处罚。

  词汇的学习记忆并非一朝一夕间就能完成,需要大家坚持整理总结并不断记忆。以上是帮帮为大家总结的考研英语必考词汇,希望大家能够结合词汇下面的真题例句,在语境中对以上词汇进行理解记忆。

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