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考研语法详解:宾语从句篇

  摘要:三大从句的详解系列已经到了尾声。除了前期为大家说过定语从句以及状语从句的用法。希望大家能够有效的掌握,并且融会贯通。语法是保证你能够理解和运用英语这一门语言最关键的因素,大家一定要重视起来。

  ►宾语从句定义及分类

  在句子中起宾语作用的从句叫做宾语从句。宾语从句分为:动词宾语从句,介词宾语从句和形容词宾语从句。

  ►宾语从句的连接词

  宾语从句的连接词主要分为:从属连词、连接代词、连接副词。

  1. 从属连词

  连接宾语从句的从属连词主要有that, if, whether。

  1)从句为陈述句,常选择连接词that或将that省略,直接与主句相连。 例如:

  He told me (that)he would go to college the next year.

  他告诉我他明年上大学。

  2)从句为一般疑问句,常选择连接词if或whether。在 whether … or not 结构中不能用 if 替换。whether...or not引导表示“是否”的一般疑问句的宾语从句。例如:

  I don’t know if there will be a bus any more.

  我不知道是否还会有公交车。

  Nobody knew whether he could pass the exam or not.

  没有人知道他是否会通过考试。

  2. 连接代词

  连接代词主要有who, whom ,whose ,what ,whoever ,whomever ,whosever, whatever, whichever等。连接代词一般指疑问,但what, whatever除了指疑问外,也可以指陈述。例如:

  Do you know who has won Red Alert game?

  你知道是谁赢得了红色警戒的游戏么?

  The book will show you what the best CEOs should know.

  这本书会告诉你最好的执行总裁该了解什么。

  Have you determined whichever you should buy, a Motorola or Nokia cell phone?

  你决定好是买诺基亚还是摩托罗拉的电话了吗?

  3. 连接副词

  连接副词主要有when, where, why, how, whenever, wherever, however等。例如:

  He didn’t tell me when we should meet again.

  他没有告诉我什么时候我们能再见面。

  Could you please tell me how you use the new panel?

  你能告诉我怎么用这个新的操作盘吗?

  None of us knows where these new parts can be bought.

  没有人知道这些的新的零件能在哪里买到。

  ►在句中的位置

  1.动词后面。

  By watching what people search for, click on and say online, companies can aim “behavioral” ads at those most likely to buy.

  企业通过观察人们搜索、浏览的内容已经在网上发表的言论,可以对那些潜在消费群体投射行为广告。

  2.介词后面。

  The new book is about how we could be happier in our daily life.

  这本新书是关于我们在日常生活中如何能更幸福的。

  3.形容词后面

  常见的引导宾语从句的形容词有:sorry, happy, glad, satisfied, surprised, afraid, certain, sure等。

  I am sorry that I could not attend the meeting this afternoon.

  很抱歉,我无法参加今天下午的会议了。

  ►宾语从句的时态

  1. 当主句为现在时或将来时,宾语从句的时态一般不受主句的时态所影响。例如:

  He wants to know what I can cook for dinner.

  who broke the window yesterday.

  when I will have a holiday.

  where I should have dinner with my friend tonight.

  which book is the best one.

  if (whether) I have passed the exam.

  2. 当主句为过去时:

  1)从句用一般过去时或过去进行时表示与主句谓语动词动作同时发生。例如:

  I only knew he was studying in a western country, but I didn’t know what country he was in.

  我只知道他当时在西方的一个国家读书,但不知道是哪个国家。

  He asked me if I was reading the story The Old Man and the Sea when he was in.

  他问我他进来的时候我是否正在读《老人与海》。

  2)从句用过去完成时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之前。例如:

  He told me that he had told Mary about the meeting already.

  他告诉我他已经把有关会议的事情告诉了玛丽。

  3)从句用过去将来时表示该动作发生在主句谓语动作之后。例如:

  The reporter asked if the government would take necessary measures to put down the to-do. 记者问政府是否会采取必要的措施镇压骚乱。

  4)如果从句是一个客观真理,那么从句的时态不根据主句的时态而变化。例句:

  The teacher said that the moon goes around the earth yesterday.

  老师昨天说月亮围着地球转。

  5)当宾语从句的引导词是who, which, what, when, where, how, why等表疑问时,不能按正常语序安排,经常将这类引导词置于句首。例如:

  Who do you think the public might choose as their favorite singer this year?

  你认为今年公众会选谁为他们最喜欢的歌手。

  3. 情态动词could/would用于 “请求”,表示委婉、客气的语气时,从句不受主句的约束。 例如:

  Could/Would you tell me when we will visit the Summer Palace?

  why I failed the exam.

  where we should have dinner.

  which book is the best one.

  if (whether) I have passed the exam.

  (实习小编:玉琳)

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