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考研语法详解:动名词

  摘要:考研英语语法是将词汇与文章大意搭连在一起的一座桥梁,掌握了语法,就相当于打通了英语学习的任督二脉。帮帮为各位考研er整理了考研英语语法中关于动名词的知识,希望大家能有有所裨益。

  动名词是一种非谓语动词,它的形式与现在分词相同,具有名词和动词的某些特征,它可以带宾语、状语等构成动名词短语,在句中不能单独做谓语。

  ►动名词的时态(Tense)

  以动词do为例:

  主动、被动 一般式 doing being done 完成式 having done having been done 从上述可以看出,动名词和现在分词的时态完全相同,而非谓语动词之间的区别主要是用法上的区别。动名词和现在分词形式相同,用法却大相径庭,动名词一般式表示的动作通常与谓语动词的动作几乎同时发生,而动名词的完成式则表示动作在谓语动词的动作之前已发生。

  例句: Mr. Jankin regretted blaming his secretary for the mistake, for he later discovered it was his own fault.(regretted与blaming所表示动作几乎同时发生)

  分析: 该句是复合句。动名词blaming在句中作宾语,it was his own fault是discovered的宾语从句。

  译文: 坚金先生后悔责怪秘书了,因为他后来发现是自己的过错。

  例句: ——Did you find out who had stolen my watch?

  ——That child didn't admit having done that.(having done所表示动作在动词admit 前已经发生)

  分析: 前一分句是一复合句,who had stolen my watch作find out的宾语,后一分句是一简单句。

  译文: ——你查出是谁把我的手表盗走了吗?

  ——那个孩子不承认是他干的。

  例句: I appreciated having been given the opportunity to study abroad two years ago.(having been given所表示动作在谓语动词appreciated之前已发生)

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 我很感谢两年前给我出国进修的机会。

  ►动名词的用法(Usage)

  (一)充当主语

  例句: Knowing what you're good at and doing even more of it creates excellence.

  (选自2009年Text 1)

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中主语中what you're good at作knowing的宾语。

  译文: 假如你了解自己在哪方面擅长并且更多地去实践就能创造辉煌。

  例句: Doing your homework is a sure way to improve your test scores, and this is especially true when it comes to classroom tests. (1998年第6题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。when引导一时间状语从句。

  译文: 做作业是提高你考试成绩的有效之策;对于随堂测试,该方法尤为可靠。

  (二)充当表语

  例句: We should always keep in mind that our work is serving the people.

  分析: 该句是复合句,其中that our work is serving the people在句中作keep的宾语,短语keep sth. in mind意为“牢记……”。

  译文: 我们应切实牢记我们的工作是为人民服务。

  例句: Reading is learning, but applying is also learning and the more important kind of learning at that.

  分析: 该句是并列句。

  译文: 读书是学习,但使用也是学习,而且是更重要的学习。

  (三)充当宾语

  例句: Discussions at home can help kids practice doing these things and help them apply these skills to everyday life situations. (选自2007年Part B)

  分析: 该句是简单句。help kids practice...与help them apply...是两并列谓语。

  译文: 在家中的讨论可以帮助孩子练习这些事情,也可以帮助他们把这些技能应用到现实的生活中去。

  例句: In dealing with a challenge on such a scale, it is no exaggeration to say “United we stand, divided we fall”.(2005年第50题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。其中it是形式主语,真正的主语是to say “United we stand, divided we fall”。

  译文: 在应对如此大规模的挑战时,我们可以毫不夸张地说:“联合,我们就生存;分裂,我们就灭亡”。

  (四)充当定语

  例句: In the past, he was the only person in the village that could drive walking tractor, which made most of the villagers jealous.

  分析: 该句是复合句。that could drive walking tractor是修饰the only person的定语从句,非限制性定语从句which made most of the villagers jealous修饰的是前面整个句子。

  译文: 他过去是村里唯一会开拖拉机的人,这令大多数村民羡慕不已。

  例句: The workers are busy building a listening room, which will have been finished by the end of this semester.

  分析: 该句是复合句。非限制性定语从句which will have been finished by the end of this semester修饰a listening room。

  译文: 工人们正在修建的语音室将在本学期末竣工。

  ►动名词的逻辑主语

  动名词的逻辑主语,表明动名词动作的发出者。能作动名词逻辑主语的词类有:物主代词、名词所有格(即名词所加“’s”,复数名词后以“s”结尾的,在其后加“’”)、名词通格(主格)或人称代词宾格。

  例句: Nowhere in nature is aluminum found free, owing to its always being combined with other elements,most commonly with oxygen. (1997年第2题)

  分析: 该句是简单句。nowhere置于句首引起倒装,owing to...在句中作状语。

  译文: 自然界中的任何地方都找不到游离态的铝,因为它总是与其他元素,即最常见的是氧元素结合在一起。

  注意:

  (1) 当逻辑主语是无生命名词或较长名词词组时,通常用名词通格(即主格)。

  例句: Anyone with half an eye on the unemployment figures knew that the assertion about economic recovery being just around the corner was untrue.(1999年第1题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中动名词的复合结构economic recovery being just around the corner在句中作介词about的宾语,economic recovery作动名词being的逻辑主语,介词短语with half an eye on the unemployment figures作定语修饰anyone。

  译文: 任何人只要一看这些失业数据便知关于经济复苏即将来临的言论是不正确的。

  例句: I don’t like Jack and Tom speaking ill of each other in public places.

  分析: 该句是简单句。Jack and Tom作speaking ill的逻辑主语。

  译文: 我不愿听到杰克和汤姆在公众场合说彼此坏话。

  (2) 当逻辑主语是someone, somebody, none, nobody, anyone, anybody等不定代词或this,that指示代词时,通常用名词通格(即主格)。

  例句: Just when I was going to sleep, I was awakened by somebody knocking on the door.

  分析: 该句是复合句。somebody作动名词knocking的逻辑主语。

  译文: 我正要入睡时,有人敲门吵醒了我。

  例句: I disapproved of that being said about the teacher, for he has his own good point.

  分析: 该句是并列句。指示代词that作动名词being said的逻辑主语。

  译文: 我不同意对老师那样的评价,因为他也有他的优点。

  (3) 当动名词在句中作主语时,逻辑主语用属格(即物主代词或名词所有格)。

  例句: The student’s knowing French well helped him a lot in learning English.

  译文: 掌握法语对于学习英语有很大的帮助。

  ►动名词的否定形式

  动名词的否定形式与分词否定形式一样,由动名词前加not构成。

  例句: She always has dozens of excellent excuses for not being able to help you.

  分析: 该句是简单句。not being able to help you是动名词的否定形式。

  译文: 对于未能帮助你,她总是有太多借口。

  例句: She is considering not asking her mother to send her to the airport.

  分析: 该句是简单句。not asking...作considering的宾语。

  译文: 她正在考虑不让母亲送她去机场。

  ►常接动名词作宾语的动词及动词短语

  常见动词:

  admit, advise, avoid, appreciate, acknowledge, allow, anticipate, consider, complete, contemplate(预期、企图),defer, delay, deny, detest(厌恶), dread, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, endure, fancy, favor, finish, forgive, facilitate(促进), imagine, include, miss, mind, mention, permit, postpone, practice, prevent, propose, quit, recall, resent(怨恨), resist, risk, suggest, understand

  动词短语:

  can’t help, give up, leave off(停止), look forward to, object to, put off, succeed in, aim at, insist on, persist in, stick to, be good at, do well in, depend on, feel like, be tired(afraid/capable) of, accustomed to, agree to, confess to(承认), submit to, see to, be(get/become) used to, devote oneself to, prefer...to, adapt(adjust) to, apply to

  例句: Some bosses dislike allowing people to share their responsibilities; they keep all important matters tightly in their own hands. (1996年第13题)

  分析: 该句是并列句。其中短语keep sth. in hand意为“把……控制在手中”。

  译文: 有些老板不喜欢让别人分担其职责,他们严格控制着所有的重要事务。

  例句: When I consider how talented he is as a painter,I cannot help believing that the public will appreciate his gift.

  分析: 该句是复合句。how talented he is as a painter与that the public will appreciate his gift 在句中分别作consider以及believing的宾语。

  译文: 当我考虑到他作为一个画家所具有的杰出才能时,我禁不住相信公众也会赞赏他的天赋。

  ►动词need等后接的动名词

  动词need, want, require, deserve, worth, like(想要), bear后接动名词主动式表示被动概念,除bear外,这些动词也可接不定式的被动式。

  例句: Whoever formulated the theory of the origin of the universe, it is just hypothetical and needs proving(to be proved). (2001年第29题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中whoever表示“无论是谁”,引导让步状语从句。

  译文: 无论宇宙起源理论的创立者是谁,那都是假说,尚待考证。

  例句: As your instructor advised, you ought to spend your time on something worth researching into(to be researched into).

  分析: 该句是复合句。worth researching into作后置定语修饰something。

  译文: 正如你导师所建议的,你应该把时间花在值得研究的问题上。

  ►动名词的基本句型

  1. feel like+动词ing(想要做……)

  例句: Do you feel like telling me what happened to our teacher yesterday?

  分析: 该句是复合句,what happened to...在句中作telling的宾语。

  2. can’t help+动词ing(禁不住,忍不住……)

  例句: Catching sight of Kate and Janie, we all can’t help shouting loudly.

  分析: 该句是简单句。分词短语Catching sight of Kate and Janie在句中作状语表示时间或原因。

  译文: 看到凯特和吉尼亚,我们都忍不住大声叫了起来。

  例句: Since our chief business with them is to enable them to share in a common life, we cannot help considering whether or not we are forming the powers which will secure this ability. (2009年第49题)

  分析: 该句是复合句。其中句子主干是we cannot help considering...。whether or not...this ability作considering的宾语,since引导一个原因状语从句,可译为“既然”,which will secure this ability是一个修饰the powers的定语从句。

  译文: 既然我们的主要职责是使他们分享日常生活里的一切,那么我们就不得不考虑自己是否在形成让他们获得这种能力的力量。

  3. on+动词ing(一……就)

  例句: On hearing the bad news that his father died last night because of cancer, he could not help crying.

  分析: 该句是复合句。that his father died last night because of cancer作news的同位语。

  译文: 得知父亲因癌症在昨晚不幸去世的噩耗,他禁不住号啕大哭。

  4. It is no use+动词ing(no use也可用no good, useless,a waste of time, worthless, dangerous, a great pleasure, a bore, worthwhile, pointless, expensive等来替换)以及There is no +动词ing(不可能)

  例句: It is good playing chess with roommates after supper in the dormitory.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 晚饭后在宿舍和舍友下棋真好。

  例句: There is no telling for me what he is going to do after graduation.

  分析: 该句是复合句。what he is going to do after graduation在句中作telling的宾语。

  译文: 对我来说,说出他毕业后将要去干什么是不可能的。

  5. go+动词ing(表示游戏或运动)

  例句: His father frequently goes hunting with his old fellows in the forest after his retirement.

  分析: 该句是简单句。

  译文: 父亲在退休后经常和他的老伙计到林中狩猎。

  (实习小编:玉琳)

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