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考研语法详解:经典长难句的种类及特点

  摘要:想拿到考研英语的高分,不仅要明白单词的释义,理解语法,还要能够掌握长难句。长难句常常潜伏在阅读和翻译中,文章大意理解的不够透彻或是翻译总是不够完善,实则就是长难句拖了后腿。所以,身为2019考研er,我们一定要理清长难句的种类及特点。

  一篇考研阅读理解文章中一般会出现3~5句长难句,而且还至少命制一道针对长难句理解的考题,因此很有必要熟悉长难句的种类以及它们各自的重点。

  ►经典从句

  1、主从复合句


  When a new movement in art attains a certain fashion, it is advisable to find out what its advocates are aiming at, for, however farfetched and unreasonable their principles may seem today, it is possible that in years to come they may be regarded as normal.

  [参考译文]

  当艺术上的一项新运动达到一定流行程度时,最好先弄清该运动倡导者的目的,因为,无论他们的创作原则在今天看来多么牵强、多么荒谬,在未来这些理论有可能会被视为正常的东西。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是it is advisable to find out... for... it is possible that...,句首的When引导一个时间状语从句,句中的for... it is possible... (至句末)是一个并列分句,表示原因,其中for后面的however +形容词farfetched and unreasonable引导状语从句,表示让步。在主干it is advisable to find out... 中,it是形式主语,后面的不定式结构to find out what its advocates are aiming at是真正的主语。

  2、并列句

  While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your “wares” and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner.

  [参考译文]

  与你谈话时,可能成为你未来老板的人会考虑你所受的教育、你的经历和你的其他资历是否在雇佣你以后会给他带来好处。你的“资历”和能力必须有条不紊、合理连贯地展示出来。

  [结构分析]

  这也是一个并列句,包含两个分句。第一个分句的主干是your could-be employer is deciding whether...,其中whether引导一个宾语从句whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you;第二个分句的主干是your “wares” and abilities must be displayed...。注意:pay sb. to do sth.此处的意思是“做…对…有利”;“wares”的本义是“商品、货物”,但在本文中,作者认为找工作就是推销自己,所以结合本文的背景,wares的意思是“(求职者的)资历或能力”。

  3、定语从句

  (1)The change met the technical requirements of the new age by engaging a large professional element and prevented the decline in efficiency that so commonly spoiled the fortunes of family firms in the second and third generation after the energetic founders.

  [参考译文]

  通过雇用大量的职业人才,这一变化满足了新时代的技术要求,防止了效率下降——在过去,这种效率下降经常使家族公司在充满活力的创业者之后的第二代或第三代毁掉全部财产。

  [结构分析]

  本句是一个并列句,以and连接;第一个分句的主干是The change met the technical requirements...,后面的介词结构by engaging a large professional element作状语,说明met the technical requirements of the new age的方式;第二个分句的主干是(the change) prevented the decline in efficiency,后面的that引导的定语从句修饰decline in efficiency。注意:engage此处的意思是“雇,聘”。

  (2)A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the anti-science tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.

  [参考译文]

  1996年进行的一项新闻调查表明,反科学的标签还被贴在其他许多团体身上——从主张消灭最后剩下的各种天花病毒的机构,到主张减少基础研究经费的共和党人。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是A survey...reveals that...,主语是survey,谓语是reveals,后面的that引导一个宾语从句,其主干是:the anti-science tag has been attached to many other groups as well,后面的部分是from和to连接的两个名词:from authorities...to Republicans...,说明other groups的内容,而两个名词后面各自带一个定语从句,都由who引导。

  The astonishing distrust of the news media isn’t rooted in inaccuracy or poor reportorial skills but in the daily clash of world views between reporters and their readers.

  [参考译文]

  读者对新闻媒体令人惊讶的不信任并非源于报道失实或报道技能较差,而是源于记者和读者之间世界观的日常冲突。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是distrust ... isn’t rooted in... but in... (不信任的根源不是…而是…),其中be rooted in... 的意思是“根源在于…”。注意:这是一种特殊句式,重点在but之后的部分。

  4、名词性从句

  Online culture thinks highly of the notion that the information flowing onto the screen comes there by specific request.

  [参考译文]

  网络文化非常推崇这样一种理念:出现在用户屏幕上的信息应该是根据用户特定要求发送过来的。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是Online culture thinks highly of the notion that...,其中notion后面的that引导一个同位语从句,说明notion的具体内容;同位语从句的主干是the information...comes there...,其中flowing onto the screen作定语,修饰the information,句末的by specific request作状语,修饰come there。

  5、状语从句

  Consumers seem only concerned, not panicked, and many say they remain optimistic about the economy’s long-term prospects, even as they do some modest belt tightening.

  [参考译文]

  消费者们看上去只是有点担心,而没有恐慌,很多消费者说尽管他们正在把开支紧缩一点,但是他们对经济的长期前景仍然保持乐观。

  [结构分析]

  本句是以and连接的并列句,其中第二个分句的主干是many say...,say后面的部分是宾语从句,其中还包含一个as引导的让步状语从句。

  ►特殊结构

  考研常命题的长难句中,除了常考的三大从句外,还有一些特殊结构(如倒装结构、比较结构、分隔结构等),这些特殊结构往往成为考生理解的难点。本文给出真题阅读中的一些典型的特殊结构的例句,建议熟读甚至背诵,以做到考试时碰到类似句子就能抓住重点。

  1、强调结构

  Perhaps it is humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought that makes the ideal of forcing the waters to do our bidding so fascinating.

  [参考译文]

  也许正是因为人类长期以来遭受旱涝摆布的痛苦,才使他们制服洪水的理想显得如此令人着迷。

  [结构分析]

  这是一个强调句,基本结构是it is...suffering...that makes...so fascinating,被强调部分是humankind’s long suffering at the mercy of flood and drought,其中的中心词是suffering,有两个修饰成分:humankind’s long和at the mercy of flood and drought(受旱涝摆布)都做suffering的定语。suffering这个词除了是被强调的部分外,还是后面that引导的从句的主语;在that引导的从句中,ideal做宾语,带有of引导的动名词短语forcing the waters to do our bidding(让河水听我们吩咐)这个定语;so fascinating做ideal的宾语补语,说明ideal的特点。

  2、倒装结构

  Nowhere do 1980 census statistics dramatize more the American search for spacious living than in the Far West.

  [参考译文]

  1980年美国的人口普查数据表明,没有哪个地方比美国最西部更能突出显示美国人想寻找更广阔的生存空间。

  [结构分析]

  否定副词nowhere放在句首,所以句子出现部分倒装。注意:more 与否定词nowhere一起使用,相当于最高级。dramatize此处的意思是“突出显示,使…戏剧化”。

  3、分隔结构

  With regard to Futurist poetry, however, the case is rather difficult, for whatever Futurist poetry may be—even admitting that the theory on which it is based may be right—it can hardly be classed as Literature.

  [参考译文]

  然而就未来主义诗歌而言,情况就很难说了,因为不管未来主义诗歌是什么——即使承认其理论基础是正确的——也很难将其归为文学。

  [结构分析]

  本句的主干是the case is rather difficult, for... it can hardly be classed as Literature,前面的however表示本句与前一句形成对比,句首的介词结构With regard to Futurist poetry作状语,其中with regard to的意思是“关于…”; for... it can hardly be classed as Literature是一个并列分句,表示原因,主干是it can hardly be classed as Literature; for后面的从句whatever Futurist poetry may be表示让步,作状语;破折号之间的部分even admitting that... 也是让步状语,其中that 引导一个宾语从句that the theory... may be right,而从句的主语theory后又带有定语从句on which it is based。

  4、比较结构

  Mr. McWhorter’s academic specialty is language history and change, and he sees the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example, to be natural and no more regrettable than the loss of the case-endings of Old English.

  [参考译文]

  麦克沃特先生的学术专长是语言史和语言变化。举例来说,他认为“whom”一词的逐渐消失是很自然的,像古英语中词格结尾的消失一样不令人惋惜。

  [结构分析]

  本句是一个并列句,包含两个以and连接的分句,其中第二个分句比较复杂:宾语是the gradual disappearance of “whom”, for example,接着是to be natural and no more regrettable,这一部分作上述宾语的补足语,最后是比较结构no more... than... (像…一样不…)。

  ►省略

  考研中有时需要考虑到篇幅的问题,所以会对原文进行删节,而且作者在行文过程中本着语言简明扼要的要求,所以如果在句子中出现与前面或后面重复的成分,文章中基本上会把能省略掉的东西全部省略掉。对付这类情况的办法就是能够在短时间内恢复句子的原貌。

  例:

  It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada inevitable and in California optional. Small wonder. America’s life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression controlled, cataracts removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure.

  分析:这里有两处省略,一是省略death is,二是can be…;这里的省略都是因为上文提到相应的内容,因此下文就将相同的内容省略。如果补全的话,全句应为:It is said that in England death is pressing, in Canada death is inevitable and in California death is optional. Small wonder. America’s life expectancy has nearly doubled over the past century. Failing hips can be replaced, clinical depression can be controlled, cataracts can be removed in a 30-minute surgical procedure.

  译文:据说,在英国死亡是迫在眉睫的,在加拿大死亡是不可避免的,在加州是可以选择的,这种说法并不奇怪。在过去一个世纪里,美国人的寿命几乎增长了一倍。髋骨坏了可以更换,临床忧郁症得到了控制,白内障通过三十分钟的手术例可以切除。

  当然,想在考研基础阶段突破长难句,就要多加练习,并且熟悉各种长句的结构,才能达到得心应手的程度。

  (实习小编:玉琳)

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