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都工作日了你还在度假?起来看长难句!

  摘要:一晃眼,春节就已经要结束了。这两天全国各地的人们已经陆陆续续进入工作状态。工作的小伙伴们要继续搬砖,虽说学校都还没开学,但是考研的同学们,年假已经结束了,该收收心啦!调整状态的第一天就从英语长难句开始吧!

  1. After six months of arguing and final 16 hours of hot parliamentary debates, Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority in the world to allow doctors to take the lives of incurably ill patients who wish to die. (1996.阅读.Text A)

  【译文】经过六个月的争论和议会最后十六小时激烈的辩论,澳大利亚北部行政区成为全球第一个允许医生为寻求解脱的绝症患者实行安乐死的法定权威。

  【析句】这是一个比较简单的复合长句,句子的主干是Australia's Northern Territory became the first legal authority。句中,after引导时间状语从句,表明发生的时间;who wish to die 是patients的定语从句,将patients的范围限定在寻求解脱的患者中;两个不定式结构to allow和to take分别是the first/序数词+to do sth和allow sb to do sth两个固定搭配的应用。

  2. The full import may take a while to sink in... (1996.阅读.Text A)

  【译文】这份法案的深刻意义或许需要一段时间才能被充分理解。

  【析句】句子很简单,但不容易理解,有两个难点:(1)import"进口"的基本含义更为考生熟知,但在此句中语义不通。这里考察import作为名词的另一个意思:含义、意义,full import则是"深刻含义"。(2)短语sink in 此处意为"被充分理解",注意与"sink into"意为"沉入到......中去"区分。

  3. Some have breathed sighs of relief, others, including churches, right-to-life groups and the Australian Medical Association, bitterly attacked the bill and the haste of its passage... (1996.阅读.Text A)

  【译文】有些人松了一口气,而另一些如教会、生命权利组织和澳大利亚医学会都对法案以及法案仓促的通过进行了强烈的抨击。

  【析句】句子主干是some......,others......结构,表明对安乐死法案两种不同的态度。including这里是介词,意为"包含、包括",e.g.There were five females among the passengers,including the stewardess.

  4. For a long period of time and in many parts of the country, a traveler was a welcome break in an otherwise dull existence.(1996. 阅读 Text B)

  【译文】长久以来,在美国很多地区,旅行者打破了往常生活的枯燥而受到人们欢迎。

  【析句】这句话有两个抽象名词break和existence,若按字面意思直译,则很难理解。在分析此类句子时,要注意把握词句的内在含义。break作动词时意为"打碎,折断",作名词时含义相近,意为"裂口,裂缝;破裂",还有"中断,休息"之意。例如Life at sea is a welcome break for my job as a schoolteacher. I love traveling to exotic places and I love the hard work. 而existence意 为"存在,生存",一般情况下可看做life的同义词。因此,整句话的意思是,旅行者的到来打破了平静枯燥的生活,给当地居民带来些许新鲜感,这或许是北美人民大多热情好客的原因之一。

  5. As is true of any developed society, in America a complex set of cultural signals, assumptions, and conventions underlies all social interrelationships.(1996. 阅读 Text B)

  【译文】同任何发达国家一样,一系列复杂的文化特征,信念和习俗构成了美国所有社会交往的基础。

  【析句】本句的主干是a complex of ... underlies  social interrelations。as is true of ...是由as引导的非限制性定语从句,修饰America,而不是a complex set ...。其中,underlie意为"是......的基础;优先于"。

  6. The casual friendliness of many Americans should be interpreted neither as superficial nor as artificial, but as the result of a historically developed cultural tradition.(1996. 阅读 Text B)

  【译文】许多美国人的这种随意的友好态度不应该被看成是肤浅的或虚假的,而应解释成一种由来已久的历史文化传统。

  【析句】这句话比较长,但结构并不复杂。主要有两个短语组成,be interpreted as和 neither ...nor...but...。注意第三个as引导的成分与前两个as引导的成分是并列的,都是与interpret的固定搭配。

  7. Such large, impersonal manipulation of capital and industry greatly increased the numbers and importance of shareholders as a class, an element in national life representing irresponsible wealth detached from the land and the duties of the landowners; and almost equally detached from the responsible management of business. (1996. 阅读. Text C)

  【译文】对资本和企业的这种大规模的非个人操纵大大增加了股东作为一个阶级的数量和重要性。这个阶层作为国计民生的一部分,代表了非个人责任的财富与土地及土地所有者应尽义务的分离,而且也几乎与责任管理相分离。

  【析句】这种长句句式复杂,内容抽象,让考生一头雾水,不知所云。面对这一拦路虎,首先要抓住句子的主干,...manipulation increased numbers and importance...,(which is)an element...。主语和宾语都有较长的短语和of结构限定。而非限制性定语an element ...landowners中又带有两个定语从句,一个是(which was)representing,另一个是(which was)detached。将定语从句中省略的"引导词+be "结构补充完整,则不易与分词结构混淆。

  8. Towns like Bournemouth and Eastbourne sprang up to house large "comfortable" classes who had retired on their incomes, and who had no relation to the rest of the community except that of drawing dividends and occasionally attending a shareholders' meeting to dictate their orders to the management. (1996. 阅读. Text C)

  【译文】像伯恩茅斯和伊斯特本这样的城镇的涌现是为了给大批"舒适"阶层提供休憩之所。这些人依赖丰厚的收入生活,除了参加分红和偶尔参加股东大会向管理层下达命令之外,与社会的其他阶层毫无瓜葛。

  【析句】这一长句的难点在于宾语comfortable classes有两个由定语从句who has retired..., who had no relation...并由and连接,而第二个定语从句中存在较长的介词短语结构,except是介词,that指代relation,drawing 和attending是并列关系,作of的宾语,to dictate their orders..是目的状语。

  9. The paid manager acting for the company was in more direct relation with the men and their demands, but even he had seldom that familiar personal knowledge of the workmen which the employer had often had under the more patriarchal system of the old family business now passing away.  (1996. 阅读. Text C)

  【译文】带薪管理公司的职业经理人与工人以及他们需要的关系更加直接,但是就连他也不熟悉工人的个人状况,而这种个人了解却常常存在于现在不断消失的古老家族公司的那种家长制制度下。

  【析句】整个句子由but引导两个转折关系的句子,第一个句子的主干是the paid manager...was in more direct with...their demands, acting for...是现在分词作定语,修饰manager;第二个句子主干是even he had...personal knowledge of the workmen..., which引导定语从句修饰familiar personal knowledge,passing aways是现在分词作定语修饰前面的old family business.将各种修饰成分与它们所修饰的内容之间的关系搞清楚,那么整句话就更容易理解了。

  10. Americans flocked to these fairs to admire the new machines and thus to renew their faith in the beneficence of technological advance.

  【译文】美国人成群结队地涌向这些展览会是为了欣赏新的机器,从而继续对技术进步所带来的便捷保持信心。

  【析句】句子不难,有两个to引导的目的状语从句。有三个单词值得注意:第一个是flock,动词作"聚集;成群而行"讲;第二个是admire,有"钦佩,欣赏"之义;第三个单词renew基本意思是指将陈旧的或年久失修的东西彻底地翻新或使年老的人再次恢复青春活力,即"复原,更新";也可指一件事情从头再来或完成其未完成的东西,即"重新开始""继续"。引申还可指"补充""延长…的期限"等。

  11. Given this optimistic approach to technological innovation, the American worker took readily to that special kind of nonverbal thinking required in mechanical technology.

  【译文】由于这种鼓励技术创新的积极方法,美国工人很容易就掌握了机械技术中要求的那种独特的非语言思维方式。

  【析句】given是介词,意为"考虑到,如果",e.g. Given their inexperience, they've done their best. 考虑到他们缺乏经验,他们已经尽力了。take与介词百搭,这里的take to意为"开始; 从事; 喜欢; 形成 ... 的习惯; 容易学会"。像take、make这种看起来简单实际上复杂的单词的搭配及用法需要考生多总结、多运用。

  12. The mechanic should sit down among levers, screws, wedges, wheels, etc., like a poet among the letters of the alphabet, considering them as an exhibition of his thoughts, in which a new arrangement transmits a new idea.

  【译文】技工应该坐在杠杆、螺丝、楔子、轮子等工具周围,就像诗人被字母围绕,把它们当做思路的展示,每一个新组合都传达一个新想法。

  【析句】句子的主干是The mechanic should sit down…, like a …, considering them as…, in which a...。有些考生可能会困惑,considering现在分词引导的状语从句修饰的是the mechanic,还是a poet。状语从句可以放在句首,也可放在句尾。如果从句提前,那么很明显,修饰的是the mechanic。也可以通过分析句子主干判断。

  13. The Aswan Dam, for example, stopped the Nile flooding but deprived Egypt of the fertile silt that floods left -- all in return for a giant reservoir of disease which is now so full of silt that it barely generates electricity.

  【译文】例如,阿斯旺大坝阻挡了尼罗河的洪水,但埃及也失去了洪水退去后留下的肥沃淤泥--这一切换来得是一个使人们疾病丛生的巨大水库。如今水库里积满了淤泥,基本上无法发电。

  【析句】句子的主干是the Aswan Dam stopped...but deprived ...。stopped和deprived是有转折关系的并列成分。that floods left作fertile silt的定语从句。破折号后all in return ...是省略了"引导词+be"的非限制性定语从句即(which was)all in return for...。非限制性定语从句中又有which引导的定语从句,which is now ...silt修饰a giant reservoir.后面的that构成so...that...的固定搭配。

  14. This week, in the heart of civilized Europe, Slovaks and Hungarians stopped just short of sending in the troops in their contention over a dam on the Danube.

  【译文】本周在文明的欧洲腹地,斯洛伐克人和匈牙利人为了多瑙河上的一处水坝所引起的争端,差一点就派出了部队。

  【析句】stop short of 意为"突然停止;未到达",引申义相当于be close to.英语中名词结构应用十分广泛,可与所对应的的名词互换,使行文简洁生动。如本句中的in their contention over...就等于contend over(for)"争夺,斗争"。

  15. Meanwhile, in India, the World Bank has given the go-ahead to the even more wrong-headed Narmada Dam.

  【译文】同时,世界银行已经贷款给印度建造纳尔达玛大坝,简直是错上加错。

  【析句】这句话中两个单词用的很好,一个是go-ahead。give go-ahead to do sth意为"允许、批准做某事",比起allow sb to do sth更加形象生动。另一个是wrong-headed,意为"固执己见的,坚持错误的",与go-ahead形似,前后呼应。

  16. Think of Gallileo's 17th-century trial for his rebelling belief before the Catholic Church or poet William Blake's harsh remarks against the mechanistic worldview of Isaac Newton.  (1998.阅读.Text.A)

  【译文】想想十七世纪,伽利略由于叛逆性的信仰受到天主教会的审判,或是诗人威廉姆布莱克对艾萨克牛顿的机械的世界观所提出的尖锐批评。

  【析句】句子的主干是一个祈使句,Think of...Gallileo's trial... or William Blake's harsh remarks...,of后有两个并列的宾语,宾语后分别跟介词短语for his rebelling...和against the mechanistic worldview...。注意多在作文中灵活运用介词替代重复出现的动词会有很不错的效果哦!

  17. A survey of news stories in 1996 reveals that the anti-science tag has been attached to many other groups as well, from authorities who advocated the elimination of the last remaining stocks of smallpox virus to Republicans who advocated decreased funding for basic research.(1998.阅读.Text.A)

  【译文】一项关于1996年的新闻故事的调查显示,很多其他组织也被贴上了反科学的标签,比如提倡消灭最后一批储存的天花病毒的机构和某些提议削减基础研究资金的共和党人。

  【析句】句子的主干是A survey of ... reveals that...,宾语从句的主干是the anti-science tag has been attached to...groups。from...to...此处相当于such as...,每个例子分别含有一个定语从句who advocated...和who advocated,由and连接表示并列关系。

  18. They have in common only one thing that they tend to annoy or threaten those who regard themselves as more enlightened.(1998.阅读.Text.A)

  【译文】他们只有一点是相同的,就是想惹怒或恐吓那些自认为更文明的人。

  【析句】句子很短,但包含两个从句,that they tend to...作the only one thing的同位语从句,同位语从句里又包含一个定语从句who regard themselves...

  19. While warnings are often appropriate and necessary -- the dangers of drug interactions, for example -- and many are required by state or federal regulations, it isn't clear that they actually protect the manufacturers and sellers from liability if a customer is injured. (1998.阅读.Text A)

  【译文】警告往往是恰当且必要的,比如提醒药物反应带来的危险,有些警告也是州法或联邦法律所要求的。但事实上,若使用者受伤,法律条款并没有明确地保护生产商或销售者使其不必承担责任。

  【析句】整句话的主干是主句+时间状语从句,主句中,it作形式主语,真正的主语是they actually protect...from liability,主句里又包括一个if引导的条件状语从句;while引导的时间状语从句中,有两个并列的分句warnings are...and many are...。破折号中间的内容属于插入语,抓主干时可暂时省略。

  20. As personal injury claims continue as before, some courts are beginning to side with defendants, especially in cases where a warning label probably wouldn't have changed anything. (1998.阅读.Text A)

  【译文】随着人身伤害起诉案件一如既往地不断增加,一些法庭的判决开始偏向被告,尤其是在商品警告标签可能起不了多大作用的情况下。

  【析句】整句话由主句some courts are beginning...+时间状语从句as personal injury claims...as before构成。其中,主句更为复杂,又包括一个where引导的定语从句,时态虚拟为语气wouldn't have changed...。

  21. At the same time, the American Law Institute -- a group of judges, lawyers, and academics whose recommendations carry substantial weight -- issued new guidelines for tort law stating that companies need not warn customers of obvious dangers or bombard them with a lengthy list of possible ones.(1999.阅读.Text A)

  【译文】与此同时,美国法律研究所--由一群法官、律师和理论专家组成,他们的建议分量极重--发布了新的民事伤害法令指导方针,宣称公司不必提醒顾客注意显而易见的危险,也不必连篇累牍地一再提请他们注意一些可能会出现的危险。

  【析句】首先把破折号中间的插入语省略不看,句子的主干是the American Law Institute issued new guildelines for tort law,stating that ...是动名词引导定语从句,可以另写为which stated...。再看插入语中,包含一个whose引导的定语从句。正是各种从句的存在使得整句话显得复杂难解,也是考生在作文中应该借鉴之处。

  22. If experiments are planned and carried out according to plan as faithfully as the reports in the science journals indicate, then it is perfectly logical for management to expect research to produce results measurable in dollars and cents. (1999. 阅读. Text 5)

  【译文】如果实验是像科学杂志上的报告所示的那样如实地根据计划规划和实施的话,那么对管理层来说,期待研究能够产生可以用金钱衡量的结果是完全合理的。

  【析句】首先抓主干,主干是一个带有条件状语从句的复合句If experiments are planned and carried..., then it is perfetly logical...。if条件状语从句中有一个比较结构as faithfully as the reports...indicate,相比较的成分是experiments are planned and carried out 和the reports...indicate,因为动词不同,所以后面不能用do代替,例如He runs faster than I do。主句中出现了it作形式主语,真正的主语是后面的动词不定式to expect research to...。

  23. It is entirely reasonable for auditors to believe that scientists who know exactly where they are going and how they will get there should not be distracted by the necessity of keeping one eye on the cash register while the other eye is on the microscope. (1999. 阅读. Text 5)

  【译文】审计人员也完全有理由相信,确切知道自己的目标并知道如何实现这一目标的科学家们根本没必要在一只眼盯着显微镜时,还要分心用另一只眼睛盯着现金计数器。

  【析句】因为it此处作形式主语替代不定式引导的主语从句,所以真正的句子主干应该是to believe that... is entirely reasonable.主语从句中的主干是scientists should not be distracted by the necessity...register,后面有while引导的时间状语从句。主语从句里又包含多个从句:who know ...引导定语从句,修饰scientists;where...goingand how...there是know的宾语从句。长句里包含从句,从句中又包含从句,是英语长句难以理解的主要原因。

  24. Nor, if regularity and conformity to a standard pattern are as desirable to the scientist as the writing of his papers would appear to reflect, is management to be blamed for discriminating against the "odd balls" among researchers in favor of more conventional thinkers who "work well with the team." (1999. 阅读. Text 5)

  【译文】如果科学家们做试验和写论文一样步骤规范、遵守要求,那么管理层就不该因歧视研究者中"思维与众不同的人"、喜欢其中思想较为传统的"善于团队合作"的人而受到指责了。

  【析句】英语复合句中,从句的位置比较灵活,可根据需要放在句前、句中、句后。这里就是从句放在句子的例子,割裂了主句,增加了阅读的困难程度。本句是由一个完全否定的主句nor is management to be blamed for...和一个条件状语从句组成的if regularity and conformity are...as...as...(比较结构)构成。主语从句中连续用了三个介词,for表原因,aganist表反对,in favor of表支持,要注意英语中介词的应用;thinkers后是who引导的定语从句。

  25. When the United States entered just such a glowing period after the end of the Second World War, it had a market eight times larger than any competitor, giving its industries unparalleled economies of scale. (2000. 阅读. Text A)

  【译文】二战结束后,美国恰好进入了这样一个繁荣时期,它当时的市场是任何竞争者的八倍大,这使得其工业具有前所未有的规模经济。

  【析句】本句是复合句,主干是it had a market ....competitor when the United States entered...。主句里,it指代美国;此处有一个比较结构:倍数+形容词比较级+than+比较的对象;逗号后,动名词引导非限制性定语从句,相当于which gived its...。

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