考研帮 > 英语 > 复习经验

干货:2021考研英语翻译复习技巧:被动语态

  摘要:在备考考研英语的过程中,英语翻译着实重要,如何能够利用足够短的时间,翻译出更为准确的句子,相信是很多考生想要了解的。帮帮整理了一篇关于“2021考研英语翻译复习技巧:被动语态”的文章,一起了解一下吧~

  被动语态在英语中的使用得比汉语要多,在英语中极为重要。考研中常常涉及到这个问题。一般说来,当强调动作承受者,不必说出执行者或的执行者含糊不清时,多用被动语态。

  主动和被动语态的对比:

  一般现在时

  ①isam are ②do/does(V.V.s) amis are +done(V. p.p)

  一般将来时

  wille going toe (about) to +do(V.) will +be +done(V. p.p)

  一般过去时

  ①waswere ②did(V.-ed) waswere +done(V. p.p)

  现在进行时

  amisare +doing(V.-ing) amisare +doing +done(V. p.p)

  过去进行时

  waswere +doing(V.-ing) waswere +doing +done(V.p.p)

  现在完成时

  have has +done(V. p.p.) havehas +been +done(V. p.p)

  过去完成时

  had +done(V. p.p.) Had +been +done(V. p.p.)

  情态动词+V.

  情态动词+be +done(V. p.p.)

  过去将来时

  would/should +V. would/should be + done(V. p.p.)

  翻译时有以下几种翻译方法:

  ①译成汉语被动句:使用"被、受、遭、让、给、由、把、得到、受到、加以、得以、为……所"等词。

  ②增加主语,即动作的实际发出者,或虚拟发出者。

  ③译成汉语无主句

  另外还有一些常用被动句型的习惯译法,需要平时积累,比如:

  It is hoped that... 希望……,有人希望……

  It is assumed that... 假设……,假定……

  It is claimed that... 据说……,有人主张……

  It is believed that... 有人想信……,大家相信……

  It is reported that... 据报道……,据通报……

  It is considered that... 人们认为……,据估计……

  It is said that... 据说……,有人说……

  【考研试题例句】

  It is imagined by many that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, and that they have to be required by a sort of special training.

  【解析】

  It is imagined by many //that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, //and that they have to be acquired by a sort of special training.

  主句:it is imagined,其中it为形式主语,而that引导的 that the operations... compared with these processes和that they have to ... special training是并列的主语从句,为真正的主语。原文中有三个被动语态is imagined,be compared和be required,译成汉语都变成了主动表达:"认为"、"相比"和"掌握"。具体为:

  (1)It is imagined by many 此处是"It+被动语态+that"形式的处理,译为"很多人认为"。

  (2)that the operations of the common mind can be by no means compared with these processes, 此处所用的是译成汉语主动句的处理方法,并保存原文主语译为"普通人的思维活动根本无法与这些思维过程(科学家的思维过程)相比"。

  (3)and that they have to be required by a sort of special training 此处所用的是译成汉语被动句的处理方法,译为"认为这些思维过程是必须由某种专门训练才能掌握"。

  【参考译文】

  许多人以为,普通人的思维活动根本无法与这些思维过程(科学家的思维过程)相比,认为这些思维过程是必须由某种专门训练才能掌握。

  ►帮帮友情提示:2021考研英语翻译复习技巧:分割结构

关于"最后阶段,真题的正确打开方式_备考经验_考研帮"15名研友在考研帮APP发表了观点

扫我下载考研帮

考研帮地方站更多

× 关闭