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2017年考研英语(一)完整真题及答案解析(考研帮版)

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Could a hug a day keep the doctor away? The answer may be a resounding "yes!" ___1__ helping you feel close and __2___to people you care about, it turns out that hugs can bring a ___3__ of health benefits to your body and mind. Believe it or not, a warm embrace might even help you __4___ getting sick this winter.

  In a recent study ___5__ over 400 healthy adults,researchers from Carnegie Mellon University in Pennsylvania examined the effects of perceived social support and the receipt of hugs ___6__ the participants' susceptibility(敏感性) to developing the common cold after being ___7__ to the virus. People who perceived greater social support were less likely to come ___8__ with a cold, and the researchers __9___ that the stress-reducing effects of hugging ___10__ about 32 percent of that beneficial effect. ___11__ among those who got a cold, the ones who felt greater social support and received more frequent hugs had less severe __12___.

  "Hugging protects people who are under stress from the ___13__ risk for colds that's usually __14___ with stress," notes Sheldon Cohen, a professor of psychology at Carnegie. Hugging "is a marker of intimacy and helps __15___ the feeling that others are there to help ___16__difficulty."

  Some experts ___17__ the stress-reducing,health-related benefits of hugging to the release of oxytocin(后叶催产素), often called"the bonding hormone" __18___ it promotes attachment in relationships, including that between mothers and their newborn babies. Oxytocin is made primarily in the central lower part of the brain, and some of it is released into the bloodstream. But some of it___19__ in the brain, where it __20___ mood, behavior and physiology.

  注:红色为答案

  1.

  [A]Besides

  [B]Unlike

  [C]Throughout

  [D]Despite

  介词辨析。从前后文意思来看,此处为递进关系,前后都表示拥抱的益处,Besides符合题意。因此答案为A项。

  2.

  [A]equal

  [B]restricted

  [C]connected

  [D]inferior

  考查词汇意思和并列关系。此处的词汇应该与close意思相近。拥抱使人与人亲近,当然也让人联系紧密。Connected有联系的,符合题意。因此答案为C项。

  3.

  [A]view

  [B]host

  [C]lesson

  [D]choice

  固定搭配。a host of 意为许多。拥抱能带来很多健康好处。符合题意。因此答案为B选项。

  4.

  [A]avoid

  [B]forget

  [C]recall

  [D]keep

  根据句子意思,拥抱能让人避免冬天生病。其他几个词汇均不符合题意。因此答案为A选项。

  5.

  [A]collecting

  [B]affecting

  [C]guiding

  [D]involving

  动词辨析。该句的意思是这项研究包含了400名健康的成年人。D选项involve具有包含的意思。collect意为收集,affect意为影响,guide意为指导,均不符合题意。因此答案为D选项。

  6.

  [A]on

  [B]in

  [C]at

  [D]of

  固定搭配。去掉修饰成分,可以看到句子主干为researchers examined the effects of hugs__the participants' susceptibility.对参与者敏感性的影响。effect on sth.对…的影响。因此答案为A选项。

  7.

  [A]devoted

  [B]attracted

  [C]lost

  [D]exposed

  动词辨析。be exposed to 遭受;暴露于,be devoted to 致力于,be attracted to 被吸引,be lost to 不再属于…;无动于衷。be exposed to 符合题意。因此答案为D选项。

  8.

  [A]along

  [B]across

  [C]down

  [D]out

  固定搭配。Come down with 生病 come along with 随同,一起 come across with 偿付 come out with 发布,展出。只有come down with a cold感冒,符合题意。因此答案为C选项。

  9.

  [A]imagined

  [B]denied

  [C]doubted

  [D]calculated

  考查动词。根据后文32%这一数据可以推测出此处的动词意为计算calculate。imagine想象,deny否认,doubt怀疑都不符合原文意思。因此答案为D选项。

  10.

  [A]served

  [B]restored

  [C]explained

  [D]required

  结合第九题,此处计算到这种影响解释说明了这个32%的比例,其他数据都不能起到解释的意思。serve服务;resore恢复,储存;require要求。因此答案为C选项。

  11.

  [A]Thus

  [B]Still

  [C]Rather

  [D]Even

  考查逻辑关系词。后面的内容是对前一句话程度的进一步加深,even甚至,即使。符合语义。因此答案为D选项。

  12.

  [A]defeats

  [B]symptoms

  [C]errors

  [D]tests

  考查词义。即使是感冒的人,如果有强大的社会支持,经常和别人拥抱,就很少有感冒的症状。symptom症状,征兆符合题意。因此答案为B选项。

  13.

  [A]highlighted

  [B]increased

  [C]controlled

  [D]minimized

  上下文语义及词义辨析。拥抱能够保护处于压力之下的人们免受增加的感冒风险的威胁。因此答案为B选项。

  14.

  [A]presented

  [B]equipped

  [C]associated

  [D]compared

  考查固定搭配。根据上下文,原文中说“感冒是和压力相联系的”,be associated with.

  “和...有关”be presented with 和…一起出席,be equipped with 装备,be compared with比较。C选项associated with 符合题意。因此答案为C选项。

  15.

  [A]assess

  [B]generate

  [C]moderate

  [D]record

  考查动词。拥抱能够帮助人们产生一种感觉,此处应填generate。因此答案为B选项。

  16.

  [A]in the name of

  [B] in the form of

  [C]  in the face of

  [D] in the way of

  固定搭配。根据句子意思,拥抱能让人产生一种面对危险的时候,别人会来帮你的感觉。in the face of 面对,in the name of 以…的名义,in the way of 在…方面。In the face of 符合题意。因此答案为C。

  17.

  [A]attribute

  [B]commit

  [C]transfer

  [D]return

  固定搭配。句子主干为some experts ___ the benefits to …  attribute to 归因于,commit to 承诺,承担责任,transfer to 转到,return to回到。因此答案为A选项。

  18.

  [A]unless

  [B]because

  [C]though

  [D]until

  考查逻辑关系词。根据上下文可以看出,后面的一句话是对前面的话进行的解释,表示原因。所以选because.因此答案为B选项。

  19.

  [A]remains

  [B]emerges

  [C]vanishes

  [D]decreases

  考查动词词义。根据前后文意思,一部分后叶催产素已经释放到血液中,那么另一些保留在大脑中发挥作用。remain保存,保留,emerge出现,vanish消失,decrease减少。因此答案为A选项。

  20.

  [A]experiences

  [B]combines

  [C]justifies

  [D]influences

  考查上下文理解。后叶催产素影响着人们的心情、行为以及生理机能。因此答案为D选项。

  Section II Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  First two hours, now three hours — this is how far in advance authorities are recommending people show up to catch a domestic flight, at least at some major U.S. airports with increasingly massive security lines.

  Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804, which terrorists may have downed over the Mediterranean Sea, provides another tragic reminder of why. But demanding too much of air travelers or providing too little security in return undermines public support for the process. And it should: Wasted time is a drag on Americans' economic and private lives, not to mention infuriating.

  Last year, the Transportation Security Administration(TSA) found in a secret check that undercover investigators were able to sneak weapons — both fake and real — past airport security nearly every time they tried. Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports such as Chicago's O'Hare International. It is not yet clear how much more effective airline security has become — but the lines are obvious.

  Part of the issue is that the government did not anticipate the steep increase in airline travel, so the TSA is now rushing to get new screeners on the line. Part of the issue is that airports have only so much room for screening lanes. Another factor may be that more people are trying to overpack their carry-on bags to avoid checked-baggage fees, though the airlines strongly dispute this.

  There is one step the TSA could take that would not require remodeling airports or rushing to hire: Enroll more people in the PreCheck program. PreCheck is supposed to be a win-win for travelers and the TSA. Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. This allows the TSA to focus on travelers who are higher risk, saving time for everyone involved. TSA wants to enroll 25 million people in PreCheck.

  It has not gotten anywhere close to that, and one big reason is sticker shock: Passengers must pay $85 every five years to process their background checks. Since the beginning, this price tag has been PreCheck's fatal flaw. Upcoming reforms might bring the price to a more reasonable level. But Congress should look into doing so directly, by helping to finance PreCheck enrollment or to cut costs in other ways.

  The TSA cannot continue diverting resources into underused PreCheck lanes while most of the traveling public suffers in unnecessary lines. It is long past time to make the program work.

  21. The crash of Egypt Air Flight 804 is mentioned to____

  [A] explain American’s tolerance of current security checks.

  [B] stress the urgency to strengthen security worldwide.

  [C] highlight the necessity of upgrading major U.S. airports.

  [D] emphasize the importance of privacy protection.

  解析:A

  本题属于例证题,定位在第二段根据例证题的解题技巧。答案应该在例子的前面找,也就是本段的段首句:Americans are willing to tolerate time-consuming security protocols in return for increased safety. 美国人愿意忍受耗费时间的安全检查协议,为了换来更高的安全性。正好符合A选项解释了美国人能够忍受长时间的安全检查。

  22. Which of the following contributes to long waits at major airports?

  [A] New restrictions on carry-on bags.

  [B] The declining efficiency of the TSA.

  [C] An increase in the number of travellers.

  [D] Frequent unexpected secret checks.

  解析:C

  本题属于细节题,定位在第三段。Enhanced security measures since then, combined with a rise in airline travel due to the improving economy and low oil prices, have resulted in long waits at major airports…, 安检措施的加强,航空旅游人员的增加,…导致了在主要机场的长时间等待。其他三项均不符合原文意思。

  23. The word “expedited” (Liner 4, Para. 5) is closet in meaning to____

  [A] quieter.

  [B] cheaper.

  [C] wider.

  [D] faster.

  解析:D

  本题属于猜词题,定位在第五段,expedited这个词所在的这句话,Passengers who pass a background check are eligible to use expedited screening lanes. 通过背景核查的乘客有资格使用…拍摄通道;前文说Enroll more people in the PreCheck program,让更多的人注册预先检查程序,预先就是更快的,所以应该是faster。

  24. One problem with the PreCheck program is____

  [A] a dramatic reduction of its scale.

  [B] its wrongly-directed implementation.

  [C] the government’s reluctance to back it.

  [D] an unreasonable price for enrollment.

  解析:D

  本题属于细节题,定位在第六段。this price tag has been PreCheck's fatal flaw.价格问题是precheck的知名弱点,也就是题干中的问题,所以答案是an unreasonable price for enrollment,注册所需价格的不合理。

  25. Which of the following would be the best for the text?

  [A] Less Screening for More Safety

  [B] PreCheck – a Belated Solution

  [C] Getting Stuck in Security Lines

  [D] Underused PreCheck Lanes

  解析:C

  本题属于主旨题,纵观全文,选择最佳答案。A. Less Screening for More Safety更少的检查,更多的安全. 与原文意思相反,原文说检查更多为了更多的安全;B. PreCheck – a Belated Solution. 预先检查-迟来的解决方案,文章是说道PreCheck,但它病没有从根本上解决旅客滞留的问题,所以也不对;D. 只是文章的一部分;只有C选项Getting Stuck in Security Lines,全文都是在围绕安检导致旅客滞留,解决方案PreCheck,但It is long past time to make the program work.并未根本解决问题。所以C更能概括全文。

  Text 2

  “The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers,” wrote Queen Liliuokalani, Hawaii's last reigning monarch, in 1897. Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society. Sadly, all is not well with astronomy in Hawaii today. Protests have erupted over construction of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), a giant observatory that promises to revolutionize humanity's view of the cosmos.

  At issue is the TMT's planned location on Mauna Kea, a dormant volcano worshiped by some Hawaiians as the piko, that connects the Hawaiian Islands to the heavens. But Mauna Kea is also home to some of the world's most powerful telescopes. Rested in the Pacific Ocean, Mauna Kea's peak rises above the bulk of our planet's dense atmosphere, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity.

  Opposition to telescopes on Mauna Kea is nothing new. A small but vocal group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation.

  Some blame for the current controversy belongs to astronomers. In their eagerness to build bigger telescopes, they forgot that science is not the only way of understanding the world. They did not always prioritize the protection of Mauna Kea's fragile ecosystems or its holiness to the islands' inhabitants. Hawaiian culture is not a relic of the past; it is a living culture undergoing a renaissance today.

  Yet science has a cultural history, too, with roots going back to the dawn of civilization. The same curiosity to find what lies beyond the horizon that first brought early Polynesians to Hawaii's shores inspires astronomers today to explore the heavens. Calls to disassemble all telescopes on Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going. Perhaps that is why we explore the starry skies, as if answering a primal calling to know ourselves and our true ancestral homes.

  The astronomy community is making compromises to change its use of Mauna Kea. The TMT site was chosen to minimize the telescope’s visibility around the island and to avoid archaeological and environmental impact. To limit the number of telescopes on Mauna Kea, old ones will be removed at the end of their lifetimes and their sites returned to a natural state. There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.

  26. Queen Liliuokalani’s remark in Paragraph 1 indicates____

  [A] her conservative view on the historical role of astronomy.

  [B] the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.

  [C]the regrettable decline of astronomy in ancient times.

  [D] her appreciation of star watchers’ feats in her time.

  解析:B

  本题属于推断题,定位在第一段。The ancient Hawaiians were astronomers, 古代的夏威夷人都是天文学家,Star watchers were among the most esteemed members of Hawaiian society,星象观察者在古代备受尊重,所以最佳答案应该是the importance of astronomy in ancient Hawaiian society.在古代夏威夷天文学是非常重要的。

  27. Mauna Kea is deemed as an ideal astronomical site due to____

  [A] its geographical features.

  [B] its protective surroundings.

  [C] its religious implications.

  [D] its existing infrastructure.

  解析:A

  本题属于细节题,定位在第二段。Mauna Kea's peak rises above…, where conditions allow telescopes to obtain images of unsurpassed clarity. 在Mauna Kea的环境或条件,望远镜能看到非常清晰的太空的情况,所以是由于地理位置才被选为理想的天文观测地。

  28. The construction of the TMT is opposed by some locals partly because____

  [A] it may risk ruining their intellectual life.

  [B] it reminds them of a humiliating history.

  [C] their culture will lose a chance of revival.

  [D] they fear losing control of Mauna Kea.

  解析:B

  本题属于细节题,定位在第三段。A small but local group of Hawaiians and environmentalists have long viewed their presence as disrespect far sacred land and a painful reminder of the occupation of what was once a sovereign nation,一小部分本地人反对是认为Mauna Kea是神圣不可侵犯,并且提醒他们曾经痛苦的一段历史,所以与答案B符合,it reminds them of a humiliating history。

  29. It can be inferred from Paragraph 5 that progress in today’s astronomy____

  [A] is fulfilling the dreams of ancient Hawaiians.

  [B] helps spread Hawaiian culture across the world.

  [C] may uncover the origin of Hawaiian culture.

  [D] will eventually soften Hawaiians’ hostility.

  解析:C

  本题属于推断题,定位在第五段。Calls to… Mauna Kea or to ban future development there ignore the reality that astronomy and Hawaiian culture both seek to answer big questions about who we are, where we come from and where we are going.通过这部分的论述表明天文学和夏威夷文化寻求回答我们是谁,从哪来,到哪去的这些问题,所以题干问天文学的进步可能会怎样,只有C符合原文含义,揭露夏威夷文化的起源,其他三项中的文章并未提及。

  30. The author’s attitude toward choosing Mauna Kea as the TMT site is one of____

  [A] severe criticism.

  [B] passive acceptance.

  [C] slight hesitancy.

  [D] full approval.

  解析:B

  本题属于观点态度题,主要定位在最后一段。作者说There is no reason why everyone cannot be welcomed on Mauna Kea to embrace their cultural heritage and to study the stars.欢迎每个人来Mauna Kea来拥抱文化遗产,研究星象。说明是比较支持的态度,但有不是完全支持,作者赞同天文学领域人士做出让步,保护当地的生态环境,所以D是错误的。

  Text 3

  Robert F. Kennedy once said that a country’s GDP measures “everything except that which makes life worthwhile.” With Britain voting to leave the European Union, and GDP already predicted to slow as a result, it is now a timely moment to assess what he was referring to.

  The question of GDP and its usefulness has annoyed policymakers for over half a century. Many argue that it is a flawed concept. It measures things that do not matter and miss things that do. By most recent measures, the UK’s GDP has been the envy of the Western World, with record low unemployment and high growth figures. If everything was going so so well, then why did over 17million people vote for Brexit, despite the warnings about what it could do to their country’s economic prospects?

  A recent annual study of countries and their ability to convert growth into well-being sheds some light on that question. Across the 163 countries measured, the UK is one of the poorest performers in ensuring that economic growth is translated into meaningful improvement for its citizens. Rather than just focusing on GDR over 40 different sets of criteria from health, education and civil society engagement have been measured to get a more rounded  assessment of how countries are performing.

  While all of these countries face their own challenges, there are a number of consistent themes. Yes, there has been a budding economic recovery since the 2008 global crash, but in key indicators in areas such as health and education, major economies have continued to decline. Yet this isn't the case with all countries. Some relatively poor European countries have seen huge improvements across measures including civil society; income equality and the environment.

  This is a lesson that rich countries can learn: When GDP is no longer regarded as the sole measure of a country’s success, the world looks very different.

  So what Kennedy was referring to was that while GDP has been the most common method for measuring the economic activity of nations, as a measure, it is no longer enough. It does not include important factors such as environmental equality or education outcomes - all things that contribute to a person's sense of well-being.

  The sharp hit to growth predicted around the world and in the UK could lead to a decline in the everyday services we depend on for our well-being and for growth. But policymaker who refocus efforts on improving well-being rather than simply worrying about GDP figures could avoid the forecasted doom and may even see progress.

  31. Robert F. Kennedy is cited because he_____

  [A]praised the UK for its GDP.

  [B]identified GDP with happiness.

  [C]misinterpreted the role of GDP.

  [D]had a low opinion of GDP.

  解析:D.第一段肯尼迪认为GDP能衡量一切,但不能衡量什么让生活更有意义。可以看出他对GDP的看法并不是很高很积极,D选项 a low opinion符合题意。因此选D。

  32. It can be inferred from Paragraph 2 that____

  [A]the UK is reluctant to remold its economic pattern.

  [B]the UK will contribute less to the world economy.

  [C]GDP as the measure of success is widely defied in the UK.

  [D]policymakers in the UK are paying less attention to GDP.

  解析:C。从第二段可以看出尽管英国GDP增长迅速,失业率低,但群众依旧选择脱欧,说明人们并不认同GDP就是衡量成功的标准。因此选C。

  33. Which of the following is true about the recent annual study?

  [A]It excludes GDP as an indicator.

  [B]It is sponsored by 163 countries.

  [C]Its criteria are questionable.

  [D]Its results are enlightening.

  解析:D。该项研究以163个国家作为研究对象,发现英国并不能确保将GDP增长转变为人民群众生活的提高。除GDP以外,医疗、教育等因素也是衡量一个国家的标准。这样的研究结果显然是很有启发性的。因此选D。

  34. In the last two paragraphs, the author suggests that____

  [A]the UK is preparing for an economic boom.

  [B]high GDP foreshadows an economic decline.

  [C]it is essential to consider factors beyond GDP.

  [D]it requires caution to handle economic issues.

  解析:C。从最后两段可以看出GDP作为衡量一个国家经济的标准是远远不够的,还应该包括环境问题、教育问题。决策者不仅要看GDP数字,更要考虑到人民幸福问题,这样才能避免经济低迷实现发展。C选项意为还要考虑到GDP以外的因素,符合题意。因此选C。

  35. Which of the following is the best??for the text?

  [A]High GDP But Inadequate Well-being, a UK lesson

  [B]GDP figures, a Window on Global Economic Health

  [C] Robert F. Kennedy, a Terminator of GDP

  [D]Brexit, the UK’s Gateway to Well-being

  解析:A。结合内容,可以看到全文以英国为例,讲述英国GDP指数高但人民依旧选择脱欧说明GDP并不是衡量一个国家成功的唯一因素,而应该考虑到更多关于幸福的因素,例如环境、教育、社会等问题,A选项从英国脱欧学到一课:高GDP低幸福感最符合题意。因此选A。

  Text 4

  In a rare unanimous ruling, the US Supreme Court has overturned the corruption conviction of a former Virginia governor, Robert McDonnell. But it did so while holding its nose at the ethics of his conduct, which included accepting gifts such as a Rolex watch and a Ferrari Automobile from a company seeking access to government.

  The high court’s decision said the judge in Mr. McDonnell’s trail failed to tell a jury that it must look only at his “official acts,” or the former governor’s decisions on “specific” and “unsettled” issues related to his duties.

  Merely helping a gift-giver gain access to other officials, unless done with clear intent to pressure those officials, is not corruption, the justices found.

  The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.” But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits, such as approval of a contract or regulation. Simply arranging a meeting, making a phone call, or hosting an event is not an “official act.”

  The court’s ruling is legally sound in defining a kind of favoritism that is not criminal. Elected leaders must be allowed to help supporters deal with bureaucratic problems without fear of prosecution of bribery. “The basic compact underlying representative government,” wrote Chief Justice John Roberts for the court, “assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns.”

  But the ruling reinforces the need for citizens and their elected representatives, not the courts, to ensure equality of access to government. Officials must not be allowed to play favorites in providing information or in arranging meetings simply because an individual or group provides a campaign donation or a personal gift. This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency, such as records of official meetings, rules on lobbying, and information about each elected leader’s source of wealth.

  Favoritism in official access can fan public perceptions of corruption. But it is not always corruption. Rather officials must avoid double standards, or different types of access for average people and the wealthy. If connections can be bought, a basic premise of democratic society – that all are equal in treatment by government- is undermined. Good government rests on an understanding of the inherent worth of each individual.

  The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.

  36. The underlined sentence(Para.1) most probably shows that the court____

  [A] avoided defining the extent of McDonnell’s duties.

  [B] made no compromise in convicting McDonnell.

  [C] was contemptuous of McDonnell’s conduct.

  [D] refused to comment on McDonnell’s ethics.

  解析:题干在问,第一段划线部分“But it did so while holding its...”最可能表明什么?此题为句意题。前一句说,最高法院推翻了对前官员的腐败方面的定罪,划线部分后面说,该官员收受了各种贿赂,前后用But连接,是反义的关系,所以C答案正确。

  37. According to Paragraph 4, an official act is deemed corruptive only if it involves____

  [A] concrete returns for gift-givers.

  [B] sizable gains in the form of gifts.

  [C] leaking secrets intentionally.

  [D] breaking contracts officially.

  解析:第四段第一句The court did suggest that accepting favors in return for opening doors is “distasteful” and “nasty.”……But under anti-bribery laws, proof must be made of concrete benefits.可以看出,如果接受了送礼和好处,并且有明确的证据就能说明这种行为是腐败的,A选项符合题意。因此选A。

  38. The court’s ruling is d on the assumption that public officials are__

  [A] allowed to focus on the concerns of their supporters.

  [B] qualified to deal independently with bureaucratic issues.

  [C] justified in addressing the needs of their constituents.

  [D] exempt from conviction on the charge of favoritism.

  解析:第五段最后一句assumes that public officials will hear from their constituents and act on their concerns意为政府官员要倾听选民的意愿,以他们所关心的问题为工作重点,C选项要关注选民的需求符合题意。因此选择C选项。

  39. Well-enforced laws in government transparency are needed to___

  [A] awaken the conscience of officials.

  [B] guarantee fair play in official access.

  [C] allow for certain kinds of lobbying.

  [D] inspire hopes in average people.

  解析:第六段前面提到to ensure equality of access to government. 后面提到This type of integrity requires will-enforced laws in government transparency,也就是说进入政府系统的公平公正性需要法律的保障。因此选择B项。

  40. The author’s attitude toward the court’s ruling is____

  [A] sarcastic.

  [B] tolerant.

  [C] skeptical.

  [D] supportive.

  解析:文章最后一句The court’s ruling is a step forward in the struggle against both corruption and official favoritism.法律法规有利用对抗政治腐败,可以看出作者的态度是支持的。因此选D项。

  Part B

  Directions:

  The following paragraphs are given in a wrong order. For Questions 41-45, you are required to reorganize these paragraphs into a coherent article by choosing from the list A-G to filling them into the numbered box. Paragraphs B and D have been correctly placed. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  [A]The first published sketch, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" brought tears to Dickens's eyes when he discovered it in the pages of The Monthly Magazine. From then on his sketches ,which appeared under the pen name "Boz" in The Evening Chronicle, earned him a modest reputation.

  [B]The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers, as it is generally known today, secured Dickens's fame. There were Pickwick coats and Pickwick cigars, and the plump, spectacled hero, Samuel Pickwick, became a national figure.

  [C]Soon after Sketches by Boz appeared, a publishing firm approached Dickens to write a story in monthly installments, as a backdrop for a series of woodcuts by the ten-famous artist Robert Seymour, who had originated the idea for the story. With characteristic confidence, Dickens successfully insisted that Seymour's pictures illustrate his own story instead. After the first installment, Dickens wrote to the artist and asked him to correct a drawing Dickens felt was not faithful enough to his prose. Seymour made the change, went into his backyard, and expressed his displeasure by committing suicide. Dickens and his publishers simply pressed on with a new artist. The comic novel, The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, appeared serially in 1836 and 1837, and was first published in book form in 1837.

  [D]Charles Dickens is probably the best-known and, to many people, the greatest English novelist of the 19th century. A moralist, satirist, and social reformer. Dickens crafted complex plots and striking characters that capture the panorama of English society.

  [E]Soon after his father's release from prison, Dickens got a better job as errand boy in law offices. He taught himself shorthand to get an even better job later as a court stenographer and as a reporter in Parliament. At the same time, Dickens, who had a reporter's eye for transcribing the life around him especially anything comic or odd, submitted short sketches to obscure magazines.

  [F] Dickens was born in Portsmouth, on England's southern coast. His father was a clerk in the British navy pay office -a respectable position, but wish little social status. His paternal grandparents, a steward and a housekeeper possessed even less status, having been servants, and Dickens later concealed their background. Dicken's mother supposedly came from a more respectable family. Yet two years before Dicken's birth, his mother's father was caught stealing and fled to Europe, never to return. The family's increasing poverty forced Dickens out of school at age 12 to work in Warren's Blacking Warehouse, a shoe-polish factory, where the other working boys mocked him as "the young gentleman." His father was then imprisoned for debt. The humiliations of his father's imprisonment and his labor in the blacking factory formed Dicken's greatest wound and became his deepest secret. He could not confide them even to his wife, although they provide the unacknowledged foundation of his fiction.

  [G] After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world. In Oliver Twist, e traces an orphan's progress from the workhouse to the criminal slums of London. Nicholas Nickleby, his next novel, combines the darkness of Oliver Twist with the sunlight of Pickwick. The popularity of these novels consolidated Dichens' as a nationally and internationally celebrated man of letters.

  D → 41. → 42. → 43. → 44. → B →45.

  参考答案:D-F-E-A-C-B-G

  41. D是已知的第一段,介绍狄更斯生平历史,是总的概括。接下来是具体背景介绍更为合理,所以F段介绍的是狄更斯的出生及家庭情况,所以为正确答案。

  42. F的末段说了The humiliations of his father's imprisonment and…狄更斯父亲入狱,很容易找到E选项,Soon after his father's release from prison,所以42的答案为E。

  43. E段末尾提到狄更斯向一些不著名的杂志提交了他的作品,后面应该来介绍他的作品,A段开头说The first published sketch, "A Dinner at Poplar Walk" brought…,介绍他的第一部作品,所以应该选A。

  44. 44后面是已经给出的段落B,开头说The runaway success of The Pickwick Papers,他的作品The Pickwick Papers大获成功,在剩下的各段中,只有C段落提到此书的出版,The Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick Club, … and was first published in book form in 1837.

  45. G段开头After Pickwick, Dickens plunged into a bleaker world,提到了在Pickwick之后狄更斯的境况,承接上面的B段,所以为正确答案。

  Part C

  Directions:

  Read the following text carefully and then translate the underlined segments into Chinese. Your translation should be written neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  The growth of the use of English as the world`s primary language for international communication has obviously been continuing for several decades.

  (46)But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.

  Complex international, economic, technological and culture change could start to diminish the leading position of English as the language of the world market, and UK interests which enjoy advantage from the breath of English usage would consequently face new pressures. Those realistic possibilities are highlighted in the study presented by David Graddol

  (47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.

  David Graddol concludes that monoglot English graduates face a bleak economic future as qualified multilingual youngsters from other countries are proving to have a competitive advantage over their British counterparts in global companies and organizations. Alongside that,(48)many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages.

  If left to themselves, such trends will diminish the relative strength of the English language in international education markets as the demand for educational resources in languages, such as Spanish ,Arabic or Mandarin grows and international business process outsourcing in other language such as Japanese, French and German, spreads.

  (49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors. The English language teaching sector directly earns nearly &1.3 billion for the UK in invisible exports and our other education related explores earn up to &10 billion a year more. As the international education market expands, the recent slowdown in the number of international students studying in the main English-speaking countries is likely to continue, especially if there are no effective strategic policies to prevent such slippage.

  The anticipation of possible shifts in demand provided by this study is significant:(50) It gives a basis to all organization which seek to promote the learning and use of English,a basis for planning to meet the possibilities of what could be a very different operating environment.That is a necessary and practical approach. In this as in much else, those who wish to influence the future must prepare for it.

  46、But even as the number of English speakers expands further there are signs that the global predominance of the language may fade within the foreseeable future.

  参考翻译:尽管英语的使用者人数进一步增多,但有迹象表明:在不久的将来,英语语言的全球主导地位会逐渐消失。

  (47)His analysis should therefore end any self-contentedness among those who may believe that the global position of English is so stable that the young generation of the United Kingdom do not need additional language capabilities.

  参考翻译:有些人认为英语的全球地位稳固,英国的年青一代不需要其他的语言能力。而他的分析正好终结了这些人的骄傲自满。

  (48)many countries are introducing English into the primary-school curriculum but British schoolchildren and students do not appear to be gaining greater encouragement to achieve fluency in other languages.

  参考翻译:很多国家将英语引入小学课程,但英国并没有大肆鼓励其中小学生去熟练地掌握另一门语言。

  (49)The changes identified by David Graddol all present clear and major challenges to UK`s providers of English language teaching to people of other countries and to broader education business sectors.

  参考翻译:大卫·葛拉尔多发现的变化给英国的对外英语机构和广阔的教育行业带来了明显的巨大挑战。

  (50) It gives a basis to all organization which seek to promote the learning and use of English,a basis for planning to meet the possibilities of what could be a very different operating environment.

  参考翻译:这给那些致力于推广英语学习和使用的机构提供了一个基础,在此之上,可以制定计划来面对可能出现的完全不同的运营环境。

  Section? III? Writing

  Part A

  51.direction

  You are to write an email to James Cook,a newly-arrived Australia professor,recommending some tourist attraction in your city .Please give reason for your recommendation.

  You should write nearly on the answer/sheet.

  Dot not sign your own name at the end of the email .use "li ming"instead

  Do not write the address.(10 points)

  参考例文:

  Dear Professor,

  With reference to your requirements, I shall, without reservation, recommend The Palace Museum as an ideal sight spot.

  We know that The Palace Museum, located in the center of Beijing, is called the Forbidden City in ancient time. During the Ming and Qing Dynasties, the palace is used by over 20 emperors who were enthroned there. And the construction of the Forbidden City is the largest and most complete ancient wooden-structure building complex in the world. Undoubtedly, it is one of the most traditional elements of China.

  With its glory, pageantry and unique, therefore, I do not hesitate to recommend The Palace Museum as the first tourist attraction for the top-three scenic spots you must visit in China.

  Faithfully yours,

  Li Ming

  Part B

  52.Directions:

  Write an essay of 160-200 words based on the following pictures. In y essay. You should

  1) describe the pictures briefly.

  2) interpret the meaning,and

  3) give your comments.

  ?You should write neatly on the ANSWER SHEET. (20 points)

  参考例文:

  Just as George Bernard Shaw puts it, “Activity is the only road to knowledge.” The idea is precisely and apparently specified in the above pictures presented in front of us. In the first drawing, one man curls up on the sofa and say: I own numerous books; by contrast, another one intends to read over 20 books in one year. Apparently, the implication of the pictures is: action, rather than imagination is the most essential way to know the world.

  We can easily recognize the significance of execution in terms of achieving success in work or study. On the one hand, to be down-to-earth and steadfast in practical work is absolutely key to success. On the other hand, young aspiring people have all sorts of brilliant ideas, but ideas are worth nothing unless executed. Currently, however, looking for a job or pursuing other goals, many people, especially the youngsters tend to aim high, but not put their thoughts into action.

  Considering all the points discussed above, it is advisable that we highly value the ability of practice and apply it in our studies and work. Only with consistent and unswerving action can we turn an idea into concrete result.
 

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